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FOLIA UNIVERSITATIS AGRICULTURAE STETINENSIS Folia Univ. Agric. Stetin. 2008, Agric., Aliment., Pisc., Zootech. 260 (5), 5–14

Wanda BACIECZKO, Monika MYŚLIWY1 THE DISTRIBUTION OF OROBANCHE PALLIDIFLORA WIMM. & GRAB. IN POLAND ROZMIESZCZENIE OROBANCHE PALLIDIFLORA WIMM. & GRAB. W POLSCE Department of Dendrology and Landscape Architecture, Agricultural University Janosika 8 71-424 Szczecin, Poland, e-mail: [email protected] 1 Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, University of Szczecin Wąska 13 71-415 Szczecin, Poland, e-mail: [email protected] Abstract. Actual geographic distribution of Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. in Poland is presented. All the 40 present-day Polish stations (including new and unpublished ones) of this species are mapped, as well as 19 historic localities from literature and ATPOL data base. The sites have been ordered and numbered according to ATPOL 10 km x 10 km grid and described by its geographical coordinates and references. Brief descriptions of general distribution and habitat of this rare and endangered species is also given. Key words: distribution, Orobanchaceae, Orobanche pallidiflora, Poland, rare species. Słowa kluczowe: gatunki rzadkie, Orobanchaceae, Orobanche pallidiflora, Polska, rozmieszczenie.

INTRODUCTION Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. is a species known from only a few sites in Poland (Mądalski 1967, Zarzycki et al. 2002). It has been assigned to a group of plant species regarded as endangered in Western Pomerania (Ginące… 1995) and Lower Silesia (Kącki et al. 2003), critically endangered in Gdańsk Pomerania (Markowski and Buliński 2004) and rare in Poland (Zarzycki and Szeląg 1992, 2006). Since recently, the species has been under legal protection (Directive of Minister of the Environment of 9 July 2004, DzU No. 168, Item 1764). The species has been placed on the Red Lists in the German regions of Brandenburg (Rote… 1992) and Mecklenburg (Benkert and Klemm 1990). Orobanche pallidiflora represents the family Orobanchaceae which encompasses exclusively the forms which parasitise, by means of suckers, other vascular plants. Its hosts include various Asteraceae species, primarily those belonging to the genus Cirsium and Carduus, and more seldom species of the genus Knautia and Scabiosa (Mądalski 1967, Webb 1972, Gilli 1975, Zázvorka 2000). The present distribution of Orobanche pallidiflora sites in Poland is poorly known. The map, plotted on the basis of the ATPOL data („Distribution Atlas of Vascular Plants in Poland”), shows a single extant site only. The remaining 24 sites are regarded as extinct, unconfirmed, or doubtful (Atlas… 2001). However, the species has been recently reported from new, earlier unknown sites. They are clustered in the North-West (Bacieczko 1984, 1991, 1995, 2002, Ziarnek 2002, Myśliwy 2003, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005), North-East (Łachacz 2002), and South of Poland (Kwiatkowski 2001, 2005). Under such circumstances, a new description of the species’ point-wise distribution in Poland is necessary and is provided by this paper.

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MATERIAL AND METHODS The new map of Orobanche pallidiflora distribution in Poland is based on data drawn from floristic literature and ATPOL as well as information yielded by the authors’ own research and other unpublished sources. Herbal materials cited in the paper was checked by dr Zbigniew Szeląg. Correct determination of the species from present-day sites cited in the literature was also confirmed by the specialists in Poland and the Czech Republic (personal information from authors). The map was plotted point by point to mark the 40 extant and 19 historic sites of the species (Fig. 1). The sites have been ordered and numbered, from North to South, according to the ATPOL 10x10 km grid (Zając 1978). Each site is described by its geographical coordinates and reference (author’s name and year of publication in the case of published evidence).

Gdańsk • • Szczecin

• Poznań • Warszawa

Łódź • • Wrocław

• Kraków

Fig. 1. The distribution of stations of Orobanche pallidiflora in Poland

1 – presently existing station, 2 – historical station, 1–59 – number of station see the text.

Rys. 1. Rozmieszczenie stanowisk Orobanche pallidiflora w Polsce

1 – stanowiska współczesne, 2 – stanowiska historyczne, 1–59 – numery stanowisk zob. tekst.

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION According to Pawłowska (1972), Orobanche pallidiflora is, in the Polish flora, a representative of the Euro-Siberian sub-element. Rothmaler (1988) assigned the species to the

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European-West Siberian distributional group. According to the nomenclature of Meusel et al. (1978), Orobanche pallidiflora is the Euro-West Siberian element. The distributional range of Orobanche pallidiflora covers a small continuous part and numerous separate, island-like sites. The continuous part encompasses areas east of the Rhone in France and north of the Po in Italy as well as Switzerland, the southern part of Germany, a major part of Austria (south of the Danube), the south-eastern part of Slovenia, a northern fragment of Croatia, and the western flank of Hungary. The island-like sites are concentrated in Central Europe (Germany, Poland, Bohemia and Slovakia) and SouthEastern Europe (from Greece to Hungary and Romania). The westernmost sites were reported from south-eastern Spain, southern France, and the central part of Great Britain. The northern border of the range is marked by a line connecting Denmark, southern Sweden, Latvia, and Estonia. In the eastern part of Europe, the range extends to the Urals, Don, and Caucasus. In Asia, Orobanche pallidiflora has been reported from the vicinity of Novokuznetsk. The southernmost sites are those found on the northern coast of Africa (Meusell et al. 1978).

HABITAT According to the monograph by Mądalski (1967), Orobanche pallidiflora has been recorded in meadows, forest clearings, and scrubs. The recently found sites expand slightly the range of the species’ habitats. In the Western Sudety Mountains, the species inhabits mainly low calcareous hills with abandoned quarries or gravel pits and grows in xerothermic grasslands, more seldom on wet meadows or in mountain riparian forests (Kwiatkowski 2001). In the Romincka Forest, the species has been recorded in waterhead peatbogs (Łachacz 2002). In the western part of the country, Orobanche pallidiflora is encountered mainly on moist or wet meadows, on the shores of fish ponds or other small water bodies, and more seldom on fallow land, near roads, in balks and scrub (Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005), and sporadically on plantations of the conifers and black currant (Grzejszczak, personal communication).

LIST OF LOCALITIES IN POLAND EA99 grid square: County (POW.) KĘTRZYN, Community (GM.) SROKOWO, 1 – Jezierski Bór near Srokowo (Abromeit 1913); 2 – an urban forest near Srokowo (Seydler 1886, from ATPOL data base). FA86 grid square: POW. GOŁDAP, GM. DUBENINKI, 3 – two sub-populations: in the dome waterhead peatbog 0.5 km N of the “Czerwona Struga” nature reserve and 0.5 km W of River Bludzia as well as between the reed rushes and spruce wood W of the peatbog, on Cirsium oleraceum (Łachacz 2002); 4 – a waterhead peatbog in the River Błędzianka valley, about 0.5 km S of the Romincka Droga, on Cirsium oleraceum (Łachacz 2002). AB94 grid square: POW. GRYFINO, GM. STARE CZARNOWO, 5 – meadows and balks 1 km SW of the village of Stare Czarnowo, on Cirsium arvense (Ziarnek 2002 unpublished).

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AB95 grid square: POW. GRYFINO, GM. STARE CZARNOWO, 6 – an abandoned field by River Płonia, in the vicinity of garden allotments at Kołbacz, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 2002); 7 – meadows and balks 1.4 km E of Stare Czarnowo, on Cirsium arvense (Ziarnek 2002 unpublished); 8 (AB95 or AC05) – a fallow patch at Dębina, on Cirsium arvense (Celiński 1964). CB79 grid square: POW. ŚWIECIE, GM. JEŻEWO, 9 – Dąbrowa (Rutkowski 1982, from ATPOL data base). DB02 grid square: POW. NOWY DWÓR GDAŃSKI, GM. OSTASZEWO, 10 – Giemlice near Gniew (Abromeit 1898). DB31 grid square: POW. TCZEW, GM. GNIEW, 11 – Szprudowo near Gniew (Abromeit 1898). DB42 grid square: POW. TCZEW, GM. GNIEW, 12 – Ciepłe near Gniew (Abromeit 1898, Rutkowski 1989, from ATPOL data base). DB73 grid square: POW. GRUDZIĄDZ, GM. ŁASIN, 13 – Łasin near Grudziądz (Abromeit 1898). EB09 grid square: POW. KĘTRZYN, GM. SROKOWO, 14 – Srokowo (Caspary 1862, from ATPOL data base). FB00 grid square: POW. KĘTRZYN, GM. SROKOWO, 15 – Sztynorckie Lasy Forest near Srokowo (Abromeit 1913). AC04 grid square: POW. GRYFINO, GM. STARE CZARNOWO, 16 – meadows and balks 1.3 km SW of Stare Czarnowo, on Cirsium arvense (Ziarnek 2002 unpublished); POW. PYRZYCE, GM. BIELICE: 17 – in the neighbourhood of fish ponds in the River Krzekna valley W of Będgoszcz, on Cirsium arvense (Ziarnek 2002 unpublished); 18 – meadows and balks 1.5 km NW of Będgoszcz, on Cirsium arvense (Ziarnek 2002 unpublished). AC05 grid square: POW. PYRZYCE, GM. PYRZYCE: 19 – a meadow behind the primary school at Okunica, on Cirsium arvense (Grzejszczak, personal communication). AC06 grid square: POW. PYRZYCE, GM. WARNICE: 20 – flanks of a dirt road 0.5 km N of buildings in the village of Stary Przylep, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 2004 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005). AC15 grid square: POW. PYRZYCE, GM. PYRZYCE: 21 – Pyrzyce (Müller 1898, 1911); 22 – wayside and abandoned field 0.1 km SE of “Geotermia Pyrzyce” Company in Pyrzyce, in the direction of Obojno, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 2007 unpublished); 23 – an abandoned meadow near buildings on Staromiejska Street in Pyrzyce, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Bacieczko 25.06.2007); 24 – an abandoned meadow among fields 1 km N of housing estate “Słoneczne” in Pyrzyce, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 2007 unpublished); 25 – a Picea abies plantation about 0.05 km E of Pyrzyce, past Polna Street, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Grzejszczak 16.08.2003); 26 – an abandoned Ribes nigrum plantation about 0.2 km E of Pyrzyce, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Grzejszczak 16.08.2003, 14.01.2006); 27 – shoulders of the abandoned Pyrzyce-Przelewice railway track, about 2 km E of Pyrzyce and the adjacent fallow patch, on Cirsium arvense (Grzejszczak, personal communication). AC16 grid square: POW. PYRZYCE, GM. PYRZYCE: 28 – riparian forest in the vicinity of water body near Zaborsko Lake SW of Cieszysław, on Cirsium oleraceum (Bacieczko 2005 unpublished); 29 – a meadow 1 km N of Mechowo, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Grzejszczak 15.08.2001, 18.09.2002); GM. PRZELEWICE: 30 – a pasture next to the pond

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on the outskirts of the village of Ukiernica, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 1984); 31 – a fallow patch about 200 m E of the sewage treatment plant at Lubiatowo, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 2004 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 32 – a mown meadow about 500 m S of buildings of Lubiatowo, on Cirsium arvense and C. oleraceum (Bacieczko 2003 unpublished, 2004 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 33 – an abandoned meadow on the lowmoor in the vicinity of Lake Płoń, on the left bank of the canal near Lubiatowo, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 2003 unpublished, 2004 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 34 – a thicket by the path surrounding Lake Płoń, about 0.3 km away from the canal near Lubiatowo, on Cirsium oleraceum and C. palustre (Bacieczko 2004 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 35 – in the vicinity of a lacustrine chalk pit W of Lubiatowo, on Cirsium arvense (Grzejszczak, personal communication). AC17 grid square: POW. PYRZYCE, GM. PYRZYCE: 36 – a herbaceous plant-dominated fallow patch near the park at Gardziec, on Cirsium oleraceum (Bacieczko 2003 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005). AC27 grid square: POW. PYRZYCE, GM. PRZELEWICE: 37 – south slope near Wołdowo, on Cirsium acaule (Libbert 1938). POW. MYŚLIBÓRZ, GM. BARLINEK: 38 – a meadow about 1.2 km NE of buildings of Laskówko, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Myśliwy 27.07.2001, Myśliwy 2003 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 39 – a meadow in the River Płonia valley 0.5 km E of buildings in the village of Laskówko, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Myśliwy 17.07.2004, Myśliwy 2003 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 40 – the reed rush on a fish pond 1.2 km SW of Laskówko, on Cirsium arvense (Myśliwy 2003 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 41 – nitrophilous vegetation in the vicinity of a pond next to the paved road about 2 km N of buildings of the village of Niepołcko, on Cirsium arvense (Bacieczko 1991, 1995); 42 – the terrestrial reed rush in a terrain depression 0.5 km W of Niepołcko, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Myśliwy 17.07.2001, Myśliwy 2003 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 43 – a meadow and a rush by a mid-field pond about 0.5 km S of Niepołcko, on Cirsium arvense (leg. Myśliwy 12.07.2001, Myśliwy 2003 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005); 44 – a meadow in the River Płonia valley 0.5 km NE of buildings of Janowo, on Cirsium arvense (Myśliwy 2003 unpublished, Bacieczko and Myśliwy 2005). BE61 grid square: POW. ZŁOTORYJA, GM. WOJCIESZÓW: 45 – Młynica Mountain near Wojcieszów (Schube 1903); 46 – a mid-forest meadow by the village of Wojcieszów near Złotoryja (Zaraza… 2004 – internet information from members of Naturalists’ Club in Świebodzin); 47 – xerothermal calcareous sward on the northern slope of the Młyniec (a skiing trail) in Wojcieszów, on Cirsium arvense (Kwiatkowski 2001); 48 – a complex of water-logged meadows in the River Kaczawa valley between Wojcieszów and Kaczorów, on Cirsium palustre and C. oleraceum (Kwiatkowski 2001); 49 – a complex of mountainous meadows at the foot of Bukowinka knoll N of the village of Mysłów, on Cirsium arvense and C. vulgare (Kwiatkowski 2001); 50 – two sub-populations: a xerothermal sward on the “Sobocin” limestone deposit E of Mysłów and wet parts of the

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quarry and fragments of an alder carr, on Cirsium arvense, C. palustre, C. oleraceum and Carduus acanthioides (Kwiatkowski 2001). BE62 grid square: POW. JAWOR, GM. BOLKÓW: 51 – Grudno (Schube 1929); 52 – a xerothermal sward at the foot of the Bukowa Góra hill and in the vicinity of the limestone quarry near the village of Grudno, on Cirsium arvense (Kwiatkowski 2001); 53 – Bolków (Schube 1903). BE68 grid square: POW. WROCŁAW, GM. KOBIERZYCE: 54 – Kobierzyce (Schube 1903). BE71 grid square: POW. JELENIA GÓRA, GM. JANOWICE WIELKIE: 55 – Miedzianka (Schube 1903); POW. KAMIENNA GÓRA, GM. KAMIENNA GÓRA: 56 – Raszów (Schube 1903). BE 72 grid square: POW. KAMIENNA GÓRA, GM. MARCISZÓW: 57 – nitrophilous herb community in the Stream Sierniawa valley 1 km S of buildings in the village Marciszów, on Carduus personata and Cirsium oleraceum (Kwiatkowski 2005). BF45 grid square: POW. KŁODZKO, GM. BYSTRZYCA KŁODZKA: 58 – Gniewoszów (Schube 1917). CF05 grid square: POW. OPOLE, GM. OPOLE: 59 – Ziemnice Małe near Prószków (Schube 1903).

CONCLUSIONS Gilli (1975) divided Orobanche pallidiflora into two sub-species: (i) ssp. pallidiflora, with corolla white to yellowish, somewhat maroon near the margin, sparsely glandular pubescent, and with pubescent or naked, sparsely glandular stamens; (ii) ssp. reticulata, with corolla usually purple- or intensively purple pigmented, dark-veined, yellow at the base only, relatively densely glandular pubescent; stamens glandular pubescent below the anthers. While the first taxon occurs mainly on lowlands, the other is rarer and typical of mountainous areas. Present-day sites shown on the map support the first of the two sub-species. Recent floristic studies have greatly expanded the list of Orobanche pallidiflora sites known from Poland. Occasionally, a mass occurrence of the species is observed. Detailed ecological and habitat-oriented studies are needed to propose appropriate methods of the species’ conservation. In addition, it would be desirable to monitor selected population on a permanent basis. Acknowledgements. The authors wish to thank Professor Adam Zając and Professor Maria Zając for making the ATPOL data available; dr Krzysztof Ziarnek and Mr Grzegorz Grzejszczak, M.Sc. for the permission to use the new so far unpublished stations of Orobanche pallidiflora as well as to dr Zbigniew Szeląg for checking herbal materials cited in the paper.

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The distrubution of Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab.... Streszczenie. Praca przedstawia aktualne rozmieszczenie Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. w Polsce. Na mapie wykonanej metodą punktową zaznaczono 40 obecnie istniejących stanowisk tego gatunku (włączając dostępne dane niepublikowane) oraz 19 stanowisk historycznych, pochodzących z literatury i bazy danych ATPOL. Stanowiska uporządkowano i ponumerowano zgodnie z układem tzw. małych kwadratów sieci ATPOL o boku 10x10 km. Podano ponadto krótki opis ogólnego rozmieszczenia oraz siedlisk występowania tego rzadkiego i zagrożonego gatunku.

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