Gasket - Flexitallic

January 11, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: N/A
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Gasket CRITERIA. Flexitallic SAFE is an added level of seal integrity resulting from our commitment to innovation in materials, co-engineered solutions and onsite education to improve installation.

USA / FLEXITALLIC L.P.

UNITED KINGDOM / FLEXITALLIC LTD.

6915 Highway 225 Deer Park, TX 77536 USA phone: +1-281-604-2400 fax: +1-281-604-2415

Scandinavia Mill Hunsworth Lane Cleckheaton BD19 4LN United Kingdom phone: + 44-1274-851273 fax: +44-1274-300303

USA / CUSTOM RUBBER PRODUCTS 2625 Bennington Houston, TX 77093 USA phone: +1-713-691-2211 fax: +1-713-691-3005

CANADA / FLEXITALLIC 4340 – 78 Avenue Edmonton, Alberta, T6B 3J5 Canada phone: +1-780-466-5050 fax: +1-780-465-1177

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES / FLEXITALLIC LLC Amenity Centre, Tower Number 2, 10th Floor, Office 4 Al Hamra Industrial Area, Ras Al Khaimah phone: +971 (0)7 243 4305

SAUDI ARABIA / FLEXITALLIC MIDDLE EAST LLC Al-Aujam Industrial City 6790-Al Badia, Unit No. 1 Al Qatif 32656-2462 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia phone: 0096-13-8089635

CHINA / FLEXITALLIC SEALING TECHNOLGY CO., LTD Building 3 South Wujiang Export Processing Zone 688 Pangjin Road Wujiang, Jiangsu 215200 P.R. China phone: +86-512-6303-2839

Rev. 05-9-14

IT’S SAFE

Gasket Design Criteria Table of Contents Page Manufacturing Units

2

Introduction

3

Section I - Gasket Selection Change Gasket ................................................................................................................................ Sheet Materials ................................................................................................................................ Thermiculite® .................................................................................................................................... PTFE Products - Sigma® ................................................................................................................... PTFE Products - Fluoroseal .............................................................................................................. Flexitallic Flexicarb® .......................................................................................................................... Compressed Fiber Gasket ................................................................................................................ Core4 Sheet Products ...................................................................................................................... Sheet Materials Chemical Compatibility Chart ................................................................................. Insulating Sets .................................................................................................................................. Metal Jacketed Gaskets ................................................................................................................... Spiral Wound Gasket ....................................................................................................................... Sizing of Spiral Wound Gaskets ....................................................................................................... Flexpro™ Gasket .............................................................................................................................. Metal Reinforced Gasket (MRG) ...................................................................................................... CPR Gasket ...................................................................................................................................... Ring Type Joint (RTJ) ....................................................................................................................... Specialized Ring Type Joint ............................................................................................................. Lens Ring ......................................................................................................................................... Weld Gasket .....................................................................................................................................

4 6 8 9 12 14 15 16 17 18 21 23 26 34 36 37 37 38 40 41 42

Section II - Joint Integrity Calculations ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Calculations ........................................................................ PVRC Method ..................................................................................................................................

43 44 48

Section III - Gasket Installation Bolt Torque Sequence ....................................................................................................................... Recommended Torque ..................................................................................................................... Torque Required to Produce Bolt Stress .......................................................................................... Installation ......................................................................................................................................... Flexitallic’s Flange Assembly and Proper Bolting Procedures Seminar ............................................ Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................................

50 51 54 58 59 59 60

Section IV - Useful Technical Data Metallic Gasket Materials .................................................................................................................. Useful Material Data ......................................................................................................................... Bolting Data ...................................................................................................................................... Flange Facing Dimensions ............................................................................................................... Ordering Flexitallic Gaskets for Special Flange Designs .................................................................. Metric Unit Conversions .................................................................................................................... Terms ................................................................................................................................................

61 61 63 64 67 68 70 72

1

Manufacturing Units Owned Manufacturing Plants

Branch Offices & Warehouses

Flexitallic Ltd. Cleckheaton, UK Tel: +44 1274 851 273

The Sealex Group Green, England Tel: +44 (0)845 450 4353

Flexitallic L.P. Deer Park,TX, USA Tel: +1 281 604 2400

The Sealex Group Cheshire, England Tel: +44 (0)151 357 1551

Custom Rubber Products 2625 Bennington Houston, TX, USA Tel: +1 713 691 2211

The Sealex Group Cardiff, Wales Tel: +44 (0)2920 487646

Flexitallic Sealing Technology (Suzhou) Co., Ltd. Wujiang, Jiangsu, P.R. China Tel: +86 512 6303 2839

Licensees Euroguarco SpA Arcola, Spain Tel: +39 187 562611

AGS Flexitallic, Inc. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Tel: +1 780 466 5050

Euro Trade Company Alexandria, Egypt Tel: +002 03 57 41 380

SIEM Supranite Paris, France Tel: +33 1 48 88 88 88

Eriks BV. Rotterdam, Netherlands Tel: +31 72 514 1514

Flexitallic Middle East LLC Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Tel: 0096-3-8089635

Eriks Pte Ltd. Singapore Tel: +65 62 72 24 05

Flexitallic LLC Ras Al Khaimah, UAE Tel: +971 (0)7 243 4305

GHX, Inc. Houston, TX, USA Tel: +1 713 222 2231 Industrial Gasket & Supply Torrance, CA, USA Tel: +1 310 530 1771

Joint Ventures Equiter S.A. de C.V. Guadalajara, Mexico Tel: +52 3 612 8483

Dooley Gasket and Seal Co. Broomall, PA, USA Tel: +1 610 328 2720

Novus Sealing Caspian LLP Atyrau, Republic of Kazakhstan T: Tel: +7 (7122) 251103

Lake Charles Rubber Lake Charles, LA, USA Tel: +1 337 433 1002 Special Piping Material Ltd. Delta State, Nigeria Tel: +234 53 254 767

Branch Offices & Warehouses The Sealex Group Aberdeen, Scotland, UK Tel: +44 1224 725241

Alliance Sealing Pty Ltd. Brisbane, Australia Tel: +61 (0)7 3212 5399

The Sealex Group Middlesbrough, England Tel: +44 (0)1642 245906

Note: Over 500 stocking distributors in over 40 countries strategically located to serve the world.

2

FLEXITALLIC GASKET DESIGN CRITERIA Introduction FLEXITALLIC, the world’s leading manufacturer and supplier of static seals and the originator of the Spiral Wound Gasket, is committed to sealing solutions for today’s industry. With greater emphasis than ever before placed on joint tightness, more attention is focused toward variables associated with the integrity of the bolted gasketed joint. Flexitallic Gasket Design Criteria manual offers the engineer and end user assistance in meeting the goal of providing fundamentally sound static sealing practice. Developed and collated by Flexitallic’s worldwide team of engineers, this publication is the “engineer’s handbook” of static seals technology. Flexitallic has identified three factors which must be considered to achieve a leaktight joint • Gasket Selection • Gasket Design • Gasket Installation

The Gasket A gasket is a compressible material, or a combination of materials, which when clamped between two stationary members prevents the passage of the media across those members. The gasket material selected must be capable of sealing mating surfaces, resistant to the medium being sealed, and able to withstand the application temperatures and pressures.

Overcoming Flange Imperfections Distortion trough

Scorings

How Does It Work? A seal is effected by the action of force upon the gasket surface. This force which compresses the gasket, causes it to flow into the flange macro and micro imperfections. The combination of contact stress, generated by the applied force between the gasket and the flange, and the densification of the gasket material, prevents the escape of the confined fluid from the assembly.

Surface imperfections

Non-parallel mounted flanges

Flange Imperfections On seating, the gasket must be capable of overcoming the macro and micro imperfections. Macro defects are imperfections such as flange distortions, non-parallelism, scoring, troughs, while superficial imperfections such as minor scratches and minor scores are considered micro imperfections. Refer to ASME PCC-1 for information on acceptable flange blemishes.

Bolt Load

Hydrostatic End Force

Forces On The Gasket In order to ensure the maintenance of the seal throughout the life expectancy of the assembly, sufficient stress must remain on the gasket surface to prevent leakage. The residual bolt load on the gasket should at all times be greater than the hydrostatic end force acting against it.

Blow Out Force Gasket

The hydrostatic end force is the force produced by the internal pressure which acts to separate the flanges.

Considerations For Gasket Selection Many factors should be considered when selecting a gasket to ensure its suitability for the intended application. Gasket properties as well as flange configuration and application details are part of the selection process.

Internal Pressure is exerted against both the flange and the gasket.

3

SECTION I Gasket Selection Gaskets can be classified into three categories: soft cut, semi-metallic and metallic types. The physical properties and performance of a gasket will vary extensively, depending on the type of gasket selected and the materials from which it is manufactured. Physical properties are important factors when considering gasket design and the primary selection of a gasket type is based on the following: • Temperature of the media to be contained • Pressure of the media to be contained • Corrosive nature of the application • Criticality of the application

Soft Cut Sheet materials are used in low to medium pressure services. With careful selection these gaskets are not only suitable for general service but also for extreme chemical services and temperatures. Types: Compressed Fiber Sheets, PTFE, Biaxially Orientated Reinforced PTFE, Graphite, Thermiculite®, Insulating Gaskets.

Semi-metallic These are composite gaskets consisting of both metallic and non-metallic materials. The metal provides the strength and the resilience of the gasket and the non-metallic component provides the conformable sealing material. These gaskets are suitable for low and high pressure and temperature applications. A wide range of materials is available. Types: Spiral Wound Gaskets, Flexpro Gaskets (grooved metal gasket with covering layers), Metal Jacketed Gaskets, MRG’s (metal reinforced gaskets).

Metallic These gaskets can be fabricated in a variety of shapes and sizes recommended for use in high pressure/temperature applications. Except for weld ring gaskets, high loads are required to seat metallic gaskets, as they rely on the deformation or coining of the material into the flange surfaces. Types: Ring Type Joints, Lens Rings, Weld Rings, Solid Metal Gaskets.

4

Gasket Selection

Service > Class 300

Yes

No

Critical Service

RTJ type flange or > Class 600 Yes

Flange intended for RTJ type

Yes

Use RTJ

No

Use SWG, Flexpro, or Weld Ring

No

Yes

No

Critical Service

Yes

Use SWG, Flexpro, Weld Ring, or Change

No

Use LS, SWG, Flexpro, MRG, Weld Ring, or Change

Use Soft Cut

Use SWG, Flexpro, Change, Weld Ring, (Thermiculite® 815, Flexicarb ST/ RGS3)*

Select sealing material and metal type on basis of service, temperature, and medium. Soft cut gaskets should always be of the minimum thickness consistent with the style of the flanges to be sealed, and compatible with the medium.

*High temperatures, but not higher than Class 300 pressure rating.

5

Change Gasket EVERYTHING IS ABOUT TO CHANGE. Introducing the spiral wound gasket that reinvents the category. When Flexitallic invented the spiral wound gasket in 1912, there was nothing like it. 100 years of innovation later, we introduced the Change gasket. The Change gasket design combines aspects of both a traditional spiral wound gasket and a kammprofile, improving upon both using reinvented winding wire 5-times thicker than traditional spiral wound wire. The new proprietary, heavy gauge metal wire is formed with a functional edge that simulates the serration profile of a grooved metal gasket (kammprofile) and held together via a unique and optimized laser welding process. The result – an incredibly robust and resilient semi-metallic gasket capable of out performing even our famed Heat Treated Inconel X-750 winding wire. Cross Sectional Cutaway

Heavy gauge winding wire

Wound like a spiral. Faced like a kammprofile.

Edge simulates the serration of a kammprofile.

COMPRESSION VS. RECOVERY

A high level of stored energy gives the Change gasket superior recovery. Recovery is essential to overcoming: • Temperature swings inherent to the process • Temperature swings from shutdowns planned and unexpected (not every gasket is replaced) • Differential thermal expansion (ex. Heat exchangers) • Flange bending & stresses • Pipe strain Maximize gasket recovery to eliminate: • Safety risks with hot-torquing • Difficult assembly with spring washers

Gasket Constants ASME m

2.5

ASME Y

6,400 psi

PVRC Gb

1,124 psi

PVRC a PVRC Gs

6

0.25 16.1 psi

Profile of Change wire wound together beneath the facing.

18,000 PSI (124 MPa) GASKET STRESS

Gasket Style

% Compression

% Recovery*

Change

30

34

CGI, HT X-750

24

34

CGI, 316LSS

30

26

DJ

26

7

Kammprofile

25

6

*Recovery is a function of compression. % Recovery =

distance recovered x 100 distance compressed

Recovery percentages are not directly comparable without taking Compression into consideration.

Change Gasket 24 Day, 24 Thermal Cycle Test This end user specified extended thermal cycle test was designed to evaluate the performance of commonly used semi-metallic gaskets throughout industry. The requested test was to simulate the potential temperature excursions of a moderately efficient refinery between major outages with no bolted joint re-torque. The end user designed rig utilizes internal heating elements to better simulate a real world joint. Each gasket was cycled from ambient to 320°C (608°F) while sealing initial nitrogen pressure of 33 bar (478 psi). Leakage was measured via pressure drop with pass/fail criteria set to 1 bar (14.5 psi) max allowable loss.

Pressure vs. Thermal Cycle 480

Change HT X750

475

Kamm Pressure (psi)

470

Spiral 465

CMG 460

DJ Fail

455

450

Thermal Cycle Rig • 4” Class 300 • B16 Studs • Internal heating element

445 0

5

10

15

20

25

Thermal Cycle Number

The Change gasket lost only 1.5 psig total and even outperformed a spiral wound with Heat Treated Inconel X-750 (HT X750) winding wire.

Standard Windings

304 SS & 316 SS for 0.125” and 0.177” 347 SS and Inc 625 for 0.177” Additional materials available for quote, longer lead time

Available Materials

Flexible graphite - Standard Filler & Facing

Spiral Wound Gasket

Flexpro (kammprofile)

CHANGE Gasket

Blowout Resistant

Yes

Yes

Yes

Excellent Tightness

Yes

Yes

Yes

Excellent Recovery

Yes, improved with HT Inc X-750

No

Yes

Yes, HT Inc X750 Recommended

No

Yes

Good Handleability

No

Yes

Yes

Low Seating Stress

Not in all Sizes/Pressure Ratings

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Features

PTFE and Thermiculite also available Locating

Carbon Steel outer guide ring; tabs for larger OD Minimum Diameter

1” ID

Maximum Diameter

80” + ID

Cyclic Conditions

Dimensions 0.125” windings ≤ 24” 0.177” windings > 24” Thickness Option of 0.125” between 24 to 40” (engineering discretion) 0.020” facing, all gaskets

Maximum Radial Width

Up to 20” ID

3/4”

20 to 40” ID

1/2”

0.177” up to 80” ID

1”

Minimum Radial Width

3/8”

Available Shapes

Round, Small oval

Use on Nubbin*

*Ask Flexitallic Engineering how the Change gasket has been successfully tested and used on flanges with nubbins.

7

Sheet Materials With the shift to soft cut gaskets, gasket manufacturers have developed a myriad of products. Some of the initial materials developed proved inferior to their predecessors in regard to temperature, chemical resistance, creep resistance and sealing characteristics. Flexitallic has developed a wide range of compressed fiber gasket sheet products. Some of these products have been fiber reinforced grades, manufactured by the traditional calendering or sheeter process. Other product ranges are fiber-free and some of these materials have exceptionally good properties. Flexitallic Thermiculite® is a versatile gasket material based upon the exfoliated vermiculite mineral. The product is available with a metal reinforced core or coreless and is designed for use at temperatures which exceed the capability of graphite based sheets. The Flexitallic Sigma® range of biaxially orientated PTFE products has superb chemical resistance, far exceeding that of CAF. These materials can be used at temperatures from cryogenic to 260°C (500°F). Being intrinsically clean they are especially suitable for use in the food, pharmaceutical and electronics industries. Flexicarb is the name given to Flexitallic’s range of graphite based products. The range includes graphite foil as well as graphite laminates which contain reinforcing metal cores to overcome the fragility of the non-reinforced foil. Graphite products have excellent stress retention properties and are resistant to most chemical media with the exception of strong oxidizing agents. Reinforced Flexicarb sheets are the standard sealing product for many arduous applications in the petrochemical and refining industries. The Flexitallic SF product ranges are rubber bound, fiber reinforced sheets made by the traditional calendering or sheeter process. A wide range of fiber types are used, often in combination, ranging from cellulose, rockwool and glass to aramid and carbon. Soft cut gasket sheets are typically used in Class 150 or Class 300 flanges. The temperature capability of the fiber/rubber products is highly thickness dependent, with thin gaskets having a wider service envelope than thicker ones.

8

Thermiculite® Exclusive to Flexitallic, this revolutionary material comprised of chemically and thermally exfoliated vermiculite simulates the structure of exfoliated graphite, with one notable exception – it maintains integrity through a wide range of extreme temperatures. Vermiculite’s thin, flexible, soft plates can be exfoliated like graphite. They retain the sealability and low porosity of graphite, but unlike graphite, Flexitallic’s Thermiculite® sheet materials will not oxidize at high temperatures. Graphite’s stress-loss due to oxidation has led to many examples of gasket failure. Independent testing of industrial grade graphite indicates a temperature limit of 650°F (340°C) for continuous service over 5 years. Thermiculite® however is thermally stable and maintains its integrity at temperatures up to 1800°F (982°C), protecting against thermal oxidation (see graph on page 9). Independent testing at TTRL (Tightness, Testing, and Research Laboratory) in Montreal illustrates Thermiculite’s excellent sealing properties and is shown on the following page.

Vermiculite’s thin, flexible, soft plates can be exfoliated like graphite. They retain the sealability and low porosity of graphite, but Flexitallic’s new Thermiculite® sheet gaskets will not oxidize at high temperatures.

Product Range

Flexitallic has developed two exceptional sheet materials – Thermiculite® 715 and 815 – that demonstrate the broad range of chemical and temperature resistance of the vermiculite mineral. Both materials are extremely versatile, fire safe, and not susceptible to oxidation.

Performance Series - Thermiculite® 715 High performance coreless sheet material (i.e. no metallic reinforcement). Generally replaces compressed fiber sheet line – SF2401, 2420, 3300, 5000 – and graphite sheet. Available in thicknesses of 1/32”, 1/16” and 1/8” in cut gaskets and 60” x 60” sheet.

22:13:20

Thermiculite® 715 Coreless Sheet

With its wide service capability, Thermiculite® 715 presents an opportunity for gasket standardization and inventory consolidation.

1200

TH 715 WEIGHT LOSS PLATEAU

Thickness 1/32” 1/16” 1/8”

1000

Te m p e r a t u r e ( ° F )

100 90

Percent of Starting Weight

80

Water

70

800

600

400

60

Binder (and Interlayer H2O in 715)

50 40

200

Aramid

30

0 0

TH 715 Graphite Fiber

20

200 93

400 204

580

870

1160

1450

1740

2030

P r e s s u r e ( ps i )

10 0 -18

290

600 316

800 427

1000 538

1200 649

Temp °F (Temp °C)

Flexitallic Thermiculite® 715 Pressure/Temperature Curve Temperature and pressure guides cannot be used simultaneously and do not apply to all thicknesses. In keeping with Industry norm, Flexitallic suggests that cut gaskets be limited to Class 300 service max unless fully confined in a groove.

TGA, Thermiculite® 715 vs. Graphite Fiber - Graph shows a Thermogravimetric Analysis of TH 715 versus a well known and commonly used graphite fiber sheet. A TGA measures weight loss after exposure to air at elevated temperatures.

9

Thermiculite® Critical Service Series - Thermiculite® 815

LECO Corp Model TGA-701 Performed June 2011

TH 815 TGA Results per FSA-G-604-07, Method B 7

Weight Loss Plateaus 500

6

400

4

Mass Loss (NBR & Interlayer Water) 24 hrs. 593°C (1,100°F)

Moisture 3 Samples 1hr, 150°C (300°F)

3

Average

2

2.54%

Temperature (°C)

Weight Loss %

5

300

Thermiculite® 815 Tanged Sheet

High temperature sheet reinforced with a 0.004” 316 stainless steel tanged core. Available in thicknesses of 1/32”, 1/16”, and 1/8” in meter by meter (standard) and 60” x 60” sheet. Cut gaskets are available in all shapes and sizes.

200

4.83%

1

100

0 02:46:40

05:33:20

08:20:00

11:06:40

13:53:20

16:40:00

19:26:40

22:13:20

25:00:00

Thermiculite® 815 is the original grade developed in the entire range of Thermiculite® series. This product has proven itself as an effective long-term sealing solution in the most versatile demanding industrial sealing applications.

Time (H:M:S) Temperature (°C)

Weight Loss %

Thermiculite 815 contains 4-5% NBR binder which is expelled in high temperature service. Based on thousands of successful in-service applications since 1997, this has not been found to significantly affect its sealing capability. Compared to graphite exposed to such high temperatures, especially for extended periods, Thermiculite maintains its mass after binder loss while graphite will continue to oxidize.

Thermiculite® 815 chemical compatibility exceeds that of graphite and will successfully seal up to 1800°F (982°C). Thermiculite’s high temperature capabilities make it ideal for use in combustion engine exhaust, nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing, steam, and much more. Unlike graphite, Thermiculite® resistance to galvanic corrosion will make it an excellent candidate for seawater and offshore cooling applications.

100000

Filled Markers - 400 psi Unfilled Markers - 800 psi

Gasket Stress, Sg (psi)

Part B1 Part B2 Part B3 Part A 10000

a = 0.200

Gb = 1,906 1000

2000

Thickness 1/32” 1/16” 1/8”

1800

Gs = 456 FL28RT01

1600

FL28RT03 1400

1

10

100

1000 10000 Tightness Parameter, Tp

100000

Gb

a

Gs

TPMIN

TPMAX

1,906

0.2

456

18

58,645

1000000

Te m p e r a t u r e ( ° F )

100

1200 1000 800 600

S100

S1000

S3000

S10000

4,788

7,588

9,400

12,026

400 200

Room Temperature Tightness (ROTT) behavior characterization (Refer to page 48 for new method for determining factors.)

0 0

290

580

870

1160

1450

1740

2030

2320

2610

P r e s s u r e ( ps i )

The above graphs are taken from the actual tests performed by TTRL. Flexitallic Thermiculite® 815 - Pressure/Temperature Curve

10

2900

3190

Thermiculite® Sheet Property Summary Thermiculite® 715

Thermiculite® 815

Type

Coreless

0.004” 316LSS Tanged Reinforced

Color

Light Brown

Golden Brown

in. (mm)

1/16 (1.5)

1/16 (1.5)

3

112 (1.8)

75 (1.2) facing only

Material Description

Properties Thickness Density

lb/ft (g/cc)

ASTM F 36 Compressibility

%

100

10

44

ASTM F36 Recovery

%

90

>45

9

80

1595 (11)

n/a

21

23.5

0.55

n/a

ASTM F38 B Creep Relaxation 1/32”

psi (MPa) 70

% % Load Retention

ASTM F152 Cross Grain Tensile Strength

60

ASTM F37 Liquid Leakage Fuel A 10 psi, Stress 1000 psi

ml/hr

BS 7531 Gas Permeability

ml/min40

1/4"

After Wm1, and Wm2 are determined, the minimum required bolt area Am is determined as follows: Am1 = Wm1 where Sb is the allowable bolt stress at operating temperature, and Sb Am2 =

Wm2 where Sa is the allowable bolt stress at atmospheric temperature. Sa

Then Am is equal to the greater of Am1 or Am2. Bolts are then selected so the actual bolt area, Ab, is equal to or greater than Am.

At this point, it is important to realize the gasket must be capable of carrying the entire compressive force applied by the bolts when prestressed unless provisions are made to utilize a compression stop in the flange design or by the use of a compression gauge ring. For this reason, FLEXITALLIC's standard practice is to assume W is equal to Ab Sa. We are then able to determine the actual unit stress on the gasket bearing surface. This unit stress Sg is calculated as follows: (3)

Sg (psi) =

Ab Sa .785 [(do - .125*)2 - (di)2]

*Note: Based on 4.5mm (.175") thick spiral wound gasket. The “v” or Chevron shape on the gasket O.D. is not part of the effective seating width, therefore .125” is subtracted from the actual gasket O.D. Using the unit stress we can assign construction details which will lead to the fabrication of a gasket having sufficient density to carry the entire bolt load.

44

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Calculations Gasket Seating Stress "y" Defined as the applied stress required to seat the gasket upon the flange faces. The actual required seating stress is a function of flange surface finish, gasket material, density, thickness, fluid to be sealed and allowable leak rate.

Gasket Factor "m" Appendix II, Section VIII, of the Boiler Code makes the statement the "m" factor is a function of the gasket material and construction. We do not agree entirely with this interpretation of "m". Actually, the gasket does not create any forces and can only react to external forces. We believe a more realistic interpretation of "m" would be “the residual compressive force exerted against the gasket contact area must be greater than the internal pressure when the compressive force has been relieved by the hydrostatic end force”. It is the ratio of residual gasket contact pressure to internal pressure and must be greater than unity otherwise leakage would occur. It follows then, the use of a higher value for "m" would result in a closure design with a greater factor of safety. Experience has indicated a value of 3 for “m” is satisfactory for flanged designs utilizing Spiral Wound gaskets regardless of the materials of construction. In order to maintain a satisfactory ratio of gasket contact pressure to internal pressure, two points must be considered. First, the flanges must be sufficiently rigid to prevent unloading the gasket due to flange rotation when internal pressure is introduced. Secondly, the bolts must be adequately prestressed. The Boiler Code recognizes the importance of pre-stressing bolts sufficiently to withstand hydrostatic test pressure. Appendix S, in the Code, discusses this problem in detail.

Notations Ab

= Actual total cross sectional root area of bolts or section of least diameter under stress; square inches

Am Am1 Am2 b bo 2b G m N P Sa Sb W Wm1 Wm2 y Sg do di

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Total required cross sectional area of bolts, taken as greater of Am1 or Am2; square inches Total required cross sectional area of bolts required for operating conditions; square inches Total required cross sectional area of bolts required for gasket seating; square inches Effective sealing width; inches Basic gasket seating width; inches Joint-contact-surface pressure width; inches Diameter of location of gasket load reaction; inches Gasket factor Radial flange width of spiral wound component Design pressure; psi Allowable bolt stress at atmospheric temperature; psi Allowable bolt stress at design temperature; psi Flange design bolt load; pounds Minimum required bolt load for operating conditions; pounds force Minimum required bolt load for gasket seating; pounds force Minimum gasket seating stress; psi Actual unit stress at gasket bearing surface; psi Outside diameter of gasket; inches Inside diameter of gasket; inches

The ASME boiler and pressure vessel code is currently under review by the Pressure Vessel Research Council. Details of these proposed improvements, including the effects on gasket design procedures are highlighted on page 48.

45

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Calculations Gasket Materials and Contact Facings Gasket factors (m) for Operating Conditions and Minimum Design Seating Stress (y) Gasket Factor (m)

Minimum Design Seating Stress (y) (psi)

0

0

Elastomers without fabric Below 75A Shore Durometer 75A or higher Shore Durometer

0.50 1.00

0 200

Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion

1.25

400

Vegetable fiber

1.75

1100

2.00 2.00 2.00

900 900 2,500

(1a) (1b)

Thermiculite 815

2.00

2,500

(1a) (1b)

Thermiculite 715

3.20

4,200

(1a) (1b)

Change

2.5

6,400

(1a) (1b)

MRG

2.00

2,500

(1a) (1b)

Flexpro

2.00

2,500

(1a) (1b)

Spiral wound metal, with filler

3.00

10,000

(1a), (1b)

Spiral wound Style LS

3.00

5,000

(1a) (1b)

(1a), (1b)

Gasket Material

Self-Energizing Types O-rings, metallic, elastomer, and other gasket types considered as self-sealing

Flexicarb products

NR SR ST

Sketches and Notes

Seating Width (See Table) Gasket Group

Column

(1a), (1b) (1c), (1d), (4), (5)

Corrugated metal with filler or Corrugated metal jacketed with filler

Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4%-6% chrome Stainless steels & Nickel based alloys

2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50

2900 3700 4500 5500 6500

2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75

3700 4500 5500 6500 7600

(1a), (1b), (1c), (1d)

Corrugated metal

Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4%-6% chrome Stainless steels & Nickel based alloys

Flat metal jacketed, with filler

Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel 4%-6% chrome Stainless steels & Nickel based alloys

3.25 3.50 3.75 3.50 3.75 3.75

5500 6500 7600 8000 9000 9000

(1a)2, (1b)2, (1c), (1d), (2)

Grooved metal

Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4%-6% chrome Stainless steels & Nickel based alloys

3.25 3.50 3.75 3.75 4.25

5500 6500 7600 9000 10100

(1a), (1b), (1c), (1d), (2), (3)

Solid flat metal

Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4%-6% chrome Stainless steels & Nickel based alloys

4.00 4.75 5.50 6.00 6.50

8800 13000 18000 21800 26000

(1a), (1b), (1c), (1d), (2), (3), (4), (5)

Ring Joint

Iron or soft steel Monel or 4%-6% chrome Stainless steels & Nickel based alloys

5.50 6.00 6.50

18000 21800 26000

II

I (6)

Notes: This table gives a list of many commonly used gasket materials and contact facings with suggested design values of m and y that have generally proved satisfactory in actual service when using effective gasket seating width b given in the table on the next page. The design values and other details given in this table are suggested only and are not mandatory. The surface of a gasket having a lap should not be against the nubbin.

46

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Calculations Effective Gasket Seating Width - See Note (1) Basic Gasket Seating Width, bo Facing Sketch Exaggerated

Column I

Column II

(1a) N

N

(1b)

N

See Note (2)

N 2

N 2

N

(1c) W

T

w 1/4”

Gasket Face

For bo < 1/4”

Notes: (1) The gasket factors listed only apply to flanged joints in which the gasket is contained entirely within the inner edges of the bolt holes. (2) Where serrations do not exceed 1/64” depth and 1/32” width spacing, sketches (1b) and (1d) shall be used.

47

PVRC METHOD Current gasket design calculations for bolted joints such as ASME VIII, DIN 2505, etc., have many shortcomings surrounding the expected tightness and optimum operating stress levels to ensure against joint leakage. In general, current design methods only ensure that the optimum bolt load is available to seat the gasket and accommodate the hydraulic loads created by the internal pressure. Little information is given regarding the tightness of the joint in service or the optimum level of gasket stress to fulfill the legislative, environmental and company emission requirements at the source of application.

Idealization of Stress vs. Tightness showing the basis for the gasket constants Gb, a and Gs Gasket Stress

Part A Sa

Gb

a

Sgmin > P Part B Cycles

Flexitallic financially supports, and is actively involved in the research efforts of the ASME's Tp min Tpn Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) to 10 100 1000 10000 review and update current gasket design methodGs Tightness Parameter Tp ology. The PVRC has, through many years of research and development (involving hundreds of actual gasket tests), conceived a new philosophy that addresses the mechanisms of sealing that will benefit gasket manufacturers, vessel designers and the operators of process equipment in general. The result is a package that recommends minimum levels of gasket assembly stress to fulfill the operational requirements of the user. The new procedure is similar to the existing ASME Section VIII calculation, except it incorporates new gasket factors (to replace the traditional m & y gasket factors) that have been determined through an extensive test program. The new gasket factors are (Gb), (a), and (Gs). (Gb) and (a) represent the initial gasket compression characteristics and relate to the initial installation, while (Gs) represents the unloading characteristics typically associated with the operating behavior. The PVRC method has been developed over the years using the following parameters for bolted joint designs and determining gasket constants: 1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Determine the tightness class 'Tc' that corresponds to the acceptable leak rate for the application (legislative, environmental, or company emission legislation). T2: Standard; represents a mass leak rate per unit diameter of 0.002 mg/sec/mm-dia. T3: Tight; represents a mass leak rate per unit diameter of 0.00002 mg/sec/mm-dia. Select the tightness constant that corresponds to the chosen tightness class C = 1.0 for tightness class T2 (Standard). C = 10.0 for tightness class T3 (Tight). Select the appropriate gasket constants (Gb), a, and (Gs) for the gasket style and material, (see table, page 49). Determine gasket parameters (N), (bo), (b), and (G) as per table (page 46). Gasket seating area, Ag = 0.7854(OD2-ID2). Hydraulic area, Ai = 0.7854G2 Minimum required tightness, Tpmin = 0.1243 x C x Pd ,

Pd = Design Pressure

Assembly Tightness Tpa = 0.1243 x C x Pt, Pt = Test Pressure (Typically 1.5 x Pd) Tightness Parameter Ratio, Tr = Log(Tpa)/Log(Tpmin) 10. Gasket Operating Stress, Sm1 = Gs[Gb/Gs x Tpaa]1/Tr 9.

48

PVRC Method 11. Gasket Seating Stress, Sm2 = Gb (Tpaa) / (e x 1.5) - Pd (Ai/Ag) e = 0.75 for manual bolt up e = 1.0 for hydraulic tensioners & ultrasonic 12. Design factor, Mo = the greater of Sm1/ Pd or Sm2 / Pd 13. Design Bolt load, Wmo = Ag x Smo + Ai x Pd Smo is the greater of Sm1, Sm2, 2P, SL SL = A minimum permitted value of operating gasket stress equal to 90% of the minimum gasket stress in the test that determined the gasket constants. It is 6.21 MPa (900 psi) for the standard and soft ROTT test procedures, and 10.3 MPa (1500 psi) for the hard gasket procedure. Note: Iterative method can be used for more exact results (Sm1 - Sm2). Additionally, computer software equation solvers allow for the solving thru iteration of equation(s) based upon Tpa and Sga. Contact Flexitallic Enginering for additional information. Note: PVRC and ASME continue to refine data reduction techniques, and values are therefore subject to further review and revisions.

Gasket Factors Type

Material

Gb (psi)

a

Gs (psi)

Spiral Wound ‘LS’ (Class 150 & 300)

SS/Flexicarb SS/PTFE

598 698

0.385 0.249

0.03 0.00128

Spiral Wound (Class 150 to 2500)

SS/Flexicarb SS/Flexite Super SS/Thermiculite® 835

2300 2600 2120

0.237 0.230 0.190

13 15 49

MRG Carrier Ring Flexpro

SS/Flexicarb SS/Flexicarb SS/Flexicarb SS/Thermiculite® 845

813 1251 387 1780

0.338 0.309 0.334 0.169

0.2 11 14 1080

Sheet Gaskets (Class 150 to 300)

Flexicarb ST Flexicarb SR SF 2401 SF 3300 Sigma® 500 Sigma® 511 Sigma® 522 Sigma® 533 Thermiculite® 715 Thermiculite® 815

1400 816 290 2360 4 209 472 115 1031 1906

0.320 0.380 0.383 0.190 0.804 0.356 0.250 0.382 0.243 0.200

0.01 0.07 2.29 50.25 0.115 0.00498 0.037 0.000065 9.68 456

Corrugated Gasket

Soft Iron Stainless Steel Soft Copper

3000 4700 1500

0.160 0.150 0.240

115 130 430

Metal Jacketed

Soft Iron Stainless Steel Soft Copper

2900 2900 1800

0.230 0.230 0.350

15 15 15

Metal Jacketed Corr.

Soft Iron

8500

0.134

230

304/Flexicarb

1124

0.250

16.1

Change Gasket

Please contact Flexitallic Technical Department for the gasket constants of newly developed gaskets.

49

SECTION III Gasket Installation A FLEXITALLIC gasket will provide a reliable seal when properly installed in the application for which it was designed. Please remember that the performance of a bolted joint is not solely dependent on the gasket itself, but on a combination of variables, many of which are outside the control of the gasket manufacturer. Experience has shown that leakage is not necessarily a sole indication of a faulty gasket, but is more likely to be the result of improper installation, assembly or bolting practices, damaged flanges, or a combination of the myriad of variables associated in a bolted gasketed assembly. When installing the gasket the following are to be considered:

Gasket Quality Obviously gasket quality is important. Always deal with reputable suppliers and/or manufacturers who are capable of high quality products and sound technical support. NEVER INSTALL A PREVIOUSLY USED GASKET!

Flange Surfaces The condition of flange surfaces, as well as the proper flange material selection play an important part in achieving a leak-free joint assembly. Assure that the following are within acceptable limits: • Surface finish • Flatness • Parallelism

• Waviness • Surface imperfections

For optimum gasket performance Flexitallic recommends that the flange surface finishes listed in the table on page 48 be used for the respective gasket selected. To assure proper and even compression of the gasket we recommend that parallelism be within 0.2 mm (0.008”), flatness and waviness are kept at better than 0.2 mm (0.008”). We suggest that the allowable imperfections do not exceed the depth of the surface finish grooves, and that any radial marks are no deeper than the depth of the flange surface finish and less than 50% in length of the overall gasket sealing surface width. Refer to ASME PCC-1 for guidelines on parallelism, flatness, waviness, and acceptable blemishes.

Fasteners It is important that the proper studs/bolts and nuts are selected to assure joint integrity. Improper selection of these may compromise the entire joint assembly. The following list is to be considered when selecting fasteners: • Type • Grade • Class

• Proper material • Appropriate coating or plating • Correct stud/bolt length

See the table on page 60 for temperature rating of stud/bolt grades.

Assembly In an effort to achieve a high degree of success in attaining a leak-free joint several steps are required. It is imperative that a regimented bolt up procedure is applied. As a minimum the following is suggested: • Install a new gasket on the gasket seating surface and bring the mating flange in contact with the gasket. • Do not apply any compounds on the gasket or gasket seating surfaces. • Install all bolts, making sure that they are free of any foreign matter, and well lubricated. Lubricate nut bearing surfaces as well. (Lubrication will not be required for PTFE coated fasteners.) • Run-up all nuts finger tight. • Develop the required bolt stress or torque incrementally in a minimum of four steps in a crisscross pattern. The initial pre-stress should be no more than 30% of the final required bolt stress. After following this sequence, a final tightening should be performed bolt-to-bolt to ensure that all bolts have been evenly stressed. Note: The use of hardened washers will enhance the joint assembly by reducing the friction due to possible galling of the nut bearing surfaces. Note: See page 58 for information on our Flange Assembly and Proper Bolting Procedures Seminar.

50

Bolt Torque Sequence For critical applications a more sophisticated method for bolt up may be considered such as heating rods, bolt tensioners, or ultrasonic extensometer.

Bolting Up Sequence Upon initially placing the gasket into the flange assembly and installing the studs or bolts and hand tightening the nuts, check the gasket position to ensure it is centered and that the gap between the flanges is uniform. Apply a relatively low torque (5 - 51 lb.-ft. depending upon bolt size, but less than 15-20% of final torque) to help set the gasket into position and recheck the flange gap to ensure it is reasonably uniform. Follow the 4 step sequence below to complete flange make-up. Stage 1 - Torque bolts up to approximately 30% of the final torque value following the diametrically opposed sequence specified on pages 49 and 50. Stage 2 - Repeat Stage 1, increasing the torque value to approximately 60% of the final torque value. Stage 3 - Repeat Stage 2, increasing the torque value to the final required torque value. Stage 4 - A final tightening should be performed following an adjacent bolt-to-bolt sequence to ensure that all bolts have been evenly stressed. Note that the Stage 4 ‘leveling pass’ may require more than one complete pass. Continue on the ‘leveling pass’ until the torque wrench clicks on every stud at the final specified torque value. If not using torque wrenches, continue tightening in a bolt-tobolt sequence until there is no additional movement of the nuts when applying the same amount of effort on each nut. Note: For additional information refer to ASME PCC-1 latest edition.

Surface Finish Requirements

Gasket Description

Gasket Cross Section

Flange Surface Finish Microinch Ra

Flange Surface Finish Micrometer Ra

Spiral Wound Gaskets

125 - 250

3.2 - 6.3

Flexpro Gaskets

125 - 250

3.2 - 6.3

Metallic Serrated Gaskets

63 MAX

1.6 MAX

MRG

125 - 250

3.2 - 6.3

Solid Metal Gaskets

63 MAX

1.6 MAX

Metal Jacketed Gaskets

100 - 125

2.5 MAX

Mat’l < 1.5mm Thick 125 - 250

Mat’l < 1.5mm Thick 3.2 - 6.3

Mat’l > 1.5mm Thick 125 - 500

Mat’l > 1.5mm Thick 3.2 - 12.5

125 - 250

3.2 - 6.3

Soft Cut Sheet Gaskets

Change Gaskets

Important - Under no circumstances should flange sealing surfaces be machined in a manner that tool marks would extend radially across the sealing surface. Such tool marks are practically impossible to seal regardless of the type of gasket used. 51

Bolt Torque Sequence 1

1 12

5

5

8

9

8

lts o -B

4

3

4

8

lts o B

3

-

12

7

10 7

6

11

6 2

2

1 16

9

8

5

13

12

ts l o -B

4

3

16

11

14

7

6 10 2 1

12

15

13

20

1

24

9

16

5

17

8 8

5

17 20

16

9

s t l o

-B

4

20

10

3

15

13

s t l o

12 4

21

B 4-

3

2

22

11 19

14

18

7 7

6 6

19 14

52

2

11

15

18 10

2

23

Bolt Torque Sequence

1

32

17

16

9

31

30

2

3

4 17

29

25

24

1

32

5

8

18

16

19

15 21

28

33

13

13

12

20

14

34

30

19

-B ol ts

3

32

4

29

39 38 37 24

14

35 36 9

44

-B ol ts

40 20

10

11

11

23 27

22 6

4

49

50

30

ts ol

10

56

15 16 32

43 44 17

30 29 53

18 19

54 55

56

5 6

7

34 8 36 35

33

20

4 45

46

47

48 17 18 19

37 13 14 15

11

16 57

12

58

41 42

31

2 3

25

39 38

9

-B

14

1 66 67 68

44

40

28

46

65

43

42

29

52 25 26 27

22 21 48 47

31

32

41

20 53 54 55 56

lts

3

51

13

8

Bo

2

23

45

7

31

2

40 1 38 39

26

33 34

68 -

24

6

15 18

37

27

5

23 10

28

21

7 26

12

22

59 60 21 22 23 24 49 50

35 36 12 11 10 9 64 63 62

51

52

5

6

25 26 7 8 41 42 43 44

27

28

61

53

Recommended Torque Torque Table for CG Spiral Wound Gaskets NPS (in.)

Class 150

Class 300

Class 400

Class 600

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

0.5

30

40

30

40

30

40

30

40

0.75

30

40

60

70

60

70

60

70

1

30

40

60

70

60

70

60

70

1.25

30

40

60

70

60

70

60

70

1.5

30

60

100

120

100

120

100

120

2

60

90

60

70

60

70

60

70

2.5

60

110

100

120

100

120

100

120

3

90

120

100

120

100

120

100

120

3.5

60

90

100

120

160

190

170

210

4

70

120

100

140

160

200

190

240

5

100

160

110

160

210

260

280

360

6

130

200

110

160

190

240

260

330

8

180

200

180

260

310

400

400

510

10

170

320

250

290

340

440

500

590

12

240

320

360

420

510

640

500

610

14

300

490

360

420

500

890

680

800

16

310

490

500

590

680

800

800

940

18

500

710

500

680

680

810

1100

1290

20

430

710

500

740

800

940

1100

1290

24

620

1000

800

1030

1500

1750

2000

2340

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

0.5

70

120

70

120

50

100

0.75

70

120

70

120

70

100

1

110

190

110

190

110

160

1.25

110

190

135

190

210

250

1.5

170

290

200

290

310

360

2

110

190

130

190

220

250

2.5

170

290

190

290

300

360

3

140

230

265

360

460

500

4

255

420

415

520

5

360

600

585

800

6

300

500

530

680

8

485

800

845

1100

10

505

800

1565

2000

12

570

850

14

630

940

16

910

1290

18

1570

2340

1745

2570

NPS (in.)

20 24

Class 900

Class 1500

Class 2500

Not Applicable Use CGI

Not Applicable Use CGI

Not Applicable Use CGI

Notes: Torque Values are in ft.-lbs., and assume Alloy Steel Bolts (A193 B7 w/ 2H Nuts) with oil/graphite lubrication. (Nut factors used on these charts are within .15 to .19) Flexitallic does not generally recommend a bolt stress above 60,000 PSI. Torque values limit minimum and maximum gasket seating stresses based upon pressure class and certain operating conditions.(i.e: maximum pressure ratings for given pressure class,not hydrotest pressure), Extreme operating conditions such as high temperature may reduce bolt yield strength. Caution should be used in these applications. The above torque values are for general use only. For critical or extreme applications (high temperature/pressure) consult with Flexitallic engineering. Flexitallic does not accept responsibility for the misuse of this information.

54

Recommended Torque Torque Table for CGI Spiral Wound Gaskets NPS (in.)

Class 150

Class 300

Class 400

Class 600

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

0.5

30

50

30

40

30

40

30

40

0.75

30

50

60

80

60

80

60

80

1

30

60

60

80

60

80

60

80

1.25

30

60

60

80

60

80

60

80

1.5

30

60

100

140

100

140

100

140

2

60

120

60

80

60

80

60

80

2.5

60

120

100

140

100

140

100

140

3

90

120

100

150

100

150

100

150

3.5

60

120

100

170

160

290

170

290

4

70

120

100

200

160

320

190

320

5

100

200

110

200

210

320

280

490

6

130

200

110

200

190

320

260

460

8

180

200

180

320

310

490

400

700

10

170

320

250

460

360

710

500

800

12

240

320

360

700

510

1000

500

850

14

300

490

360

610

500

870

680

950

16

310

490

500

920

680

1250

800

1210

18

490

710

500

1000

680

1340

1100

1790

20

430

710

500

1000

800

1430

1100

1640

24

620

1000

800

1600

1500

2270

2000

2670

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

0.5

70

120

70

120

50

100

0.75

70

120

70

120

63

100

NPS (in.)

Class 900

Class 1500

Class 2500

1

110

190

110

190

110

160

1.25

110

190

140

190

210

250

1.5

170

290

200

290

310

360

2

110

190

130

190

220

250

2.5

170

290

190

290

300

360

3

140

230

270

360

460

500

4

260

420

420

520

710

800

5

360

600

590

800

1280

1500

6

300

500

530

680

1870

2200

8

485

800

850

1100

1780

2200

10

505

800

1570

2000

3040

4400

12

560

850

1500

2200

4610

5920

14

630

940

2120

3180

16

910

1290

2940

4400

18

1570

2340

3950

5920

20

1745

2570

5150

7720

24

2945

5140

8340

12500

Notes: Torque Values are in ft.-lbs., and assume Alloy Steel Bolts (A193 B7 w/ 2H Nuts) with oil/graphite lubrication. (Nut factors used on these charts are within .15 to .19) Flexitallic does not generally recommend a bolt stress above 60,000 PSI. Torque values limit minimum and maximum gasket seating stresses based upon pressure class and certain operating conditions.(i.e: maximum pressure ratings for given pressure class,not hydrotest pressure), Extreme operating conditions such as high temperature may reduce bolt yield strength. Caution should be used in these applications. The above torque values are for general use only. For critical or extreme applications (high temperature/pressure) consult with Flexitallic engineering. Flexitallic does not accept responsibility for the misuse of this information.

55

Recommended Torque Torque Table for Flexpro Gaskets NPS (in.)

Class 150

Class 300

Class 400

Class 600

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

0.5

15

50

30

45

30

40

30

45

0.75

15

50

30

80

60

80

60

80

1

15

60

30

90

60

80

60

85

1.25

30

60

50

120

60

100

60

120

1.5

30

60

65

200

100

135

100

200

2

60

120

45

120

60

80

60

120

2.5

60

120

65

200

100

135

100

180

3

90

120

90

200

100

175

100

200

3.5

60

120

100

200

160

225

160

320

4

75

120

100

200

160

290

160

320

5

100

200

100

200

160

320

245

490

6

120

200

100

200

160

320

245

490

8

160

200

160

300

245

490

355

710

10

160

320

240

490

355

586

500

940

12

160

320

300

710

500

770

500

900

14

280

490

300

710

500

670

680

1070

16

245

490

420

1000

680

1005

800

1370

18

360

710

420

1000

680

1110

1100

2050

20

360

710

500

1000

800

1185

1100

1880

24

500

1000

650

1600

1500

2140

2000

2940

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

0.5

70

120

70

120

50

100

0.75

70

120

70

120

70

100

1

110

190

110

190

105

160

1.25

110

190

110

190

210

245

1.5

165

290

170

290

290

355

2

110

190

110

190

185

245

2.5

165

290

170

290

255

355

3

125

200

245

355

445

500

4

240

415

400

500

700

800

5

350

585

560

800

1240

1500

6

285

455

520

680

1835

2200

8

480

795

805

1100

1700

2200

10

500

795

1480

2000

2915

4400

12

535

795

1470

2200

4295

5920

14

600

935

2120

3180

16

895

1285

2935

4400

18

1520

2335

3950

5920

20

1720

2570

5150

7720

24

2950

5135

8335

12500

NPS (in.)

Class 900

Class 1500

Class 2500

Notes: Torque Values are in ft.-lbs., and assume Alloy Steel Bolts (A193 B7 w/ 2H Nuts) with oil/graphite lubrication. (Nut factors used on these charts are within .15 to .19) Flexitallic does not generally recommend a bolt stress above 60,000 PSI. Torque values limit minimum and maximum gasket seating stresses based upon pressure class and certain operating conditions.(i.e: maximum pressure ratings for given pressure class,not hydrotest pressure), Extreme operating conditions such as high temperature may reduce bolt yield strength. Caution should be used in these applications. The above torque values are for general use only. For critical or extreme applications (high temperature/pressure) consult with Flexitallic engineering. Flexitallic does not accept responsibility for the misuse of this information.

56

Recommended Torque Torque Table for Spiral Wound CGI - SERIES A Gaskets NPS (in.)

Class 150

Class 300

Class 400

Class 600

Class 900

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

26

500

890

1100

1600

1500

2000

2000

2670

3950

6910

28

500

830

1100

1720

2000

2670

2200

2930

5150

9010

30

500

880

1500

2140

2200

2930

2200

2930

5150

9010

32

800

1330

2000

2670

2200

2930

3180

4240

6670

11665

34

800

1330

2000

2770

2200

2930

3180

4240

8330

14580

36

800

1330

2200

2930

2200

2930

4400

5870

8330

14580

38

800

1370

800

1260

1500

2280

3180

4240

9210

14580

40

800

1330

1100

1930

2000

2750

3180

4240

8530

14580

42

800

1460

1100

2020

2000

2880

4400

5870

9230

14580

44

800

1480

1500

2640

2200

2930

4400

5870

10730

17970

46

800

1550

2000

3600

2200

2930

4400

5870

12550

21940

48

800

1460

2000

3300

3180

4240

5920

7890

13460

21940

50

1500

2500

2200

3300

3180

4240

7720

10300

52

1500

2500

2200

3430

3180

4240

7720

10300

54

1500

2500

3180

4580

4400

5870

7720

10300

56

1500

2500

3180

4740

4400

5870

10000

13300

58

1500

2500

3180

4310

4400

5870

10000

13300

60

1500

2500

3180

4450

5920

7890

12500

16670

Torque Table for Spiral Wound CGI - SERIES B Gaskets NPS (in.)

Class 150

Class 300

Class 400

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

26

100

200

500

830

680

28

100

200

500

790

800

30

100

200

680

920

800

32

100

200

800

1070

34

160

320

800

36

160

320

38

250

490

40

260

42

250

44

Class 600

Max Torque

Class 900

Min Torque

Max Torque

Min Torque

Max Torque

910

1100

1560

3430

5140

1120

1500

2000

4230

6910

1230

2000

2670

5150

9010

1100

1760

2200

2940

5750

9010

1070

1100

1520

3180

4240

7030

11670

1100

1470

1500

2290

3180

4240

5610

9010

1100

1470

1500

2280

3180

4240

9220

14590

490

1100

1470

2000

2750

3180

4240

8530

14590

490

1500

2000

2000

2880

4400

5870

9240

14590

250

490

1500

2000

2200

2930

4400

5870

10730

17970

46

380

710

2000

2670

2200

2930

4400

5870

12550

21940

48

360

710

2000

2670

3180

4240

5920

7900

13460

21940

50

360

710

2000

2670

3180

4240

7720

10300

52

360

710

2000

2670

3180

4240

7720

10300

54

360

710

2000

2670

4400

5870

7720

10300

56

360

710

3180

4240

4400

5870

10000

13340

58

500

880

3180

4240

4400

5870

10000

13340

60

500

840

3180

4240

5920

7900

12500

16670

Notes: Torque Values are in ft.-lbs., and assume Alloy Steel Bolts (A193 B7 w/ 2H Nuts) with oil/graphite lubrication. (Nut factors used on these charts are within .15 to .19) Flexitallic does not generally recommend a bolt stress above 60,000 PSI Torque values limit minimum and maximum gasket seating stresses based upon pressure class and certain operating conditions. Extreme operating conditions such as high temperature may reduce bolt yield strength. Caution should be used in these applications. The above torque values are for general use only. For critical or extreme applications (high temperature/pressure) consult with Flexitallic engineering. Flexitallic does not accept responsibility for the misuse of this information.

57

Torque Required To Produce Bolt Stress The torque or turning effort required to produce a certain stress in bolting is dependent upon a number of conditions, some of which are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Diameter of bolt Type and number of threads on bolt Material of bolt Condition of nut bearing surfaces Lubrication of bolt threads and nut bearing surfaces Gasket seating stress related to bolt stress/load Bolt interaction Effects of gasket type

Torque Data For Use with Alloy Steel Stud Bolts Load in Pounds on Stud Bolts When Torque Loads Are Applied Stress Nominal Diameter of Bolt

Number of Threads

Diameter at Root of Thread

Area at Root of Thread

(inches)

(per inch)

(inches)

sq. inch

Torque ft./lbs.

Load lbs.

Torque ft./lbs.

Load lbs.

Torque ft./lbs.

Load lbs.

1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2

20 18 16 14 13

.185 .240 .294 .345 .400

.027 .045 .068 .093 .126

4 8 12 20 30

810 1350 2040 2790 3780

6 12 18 30 45

1215 2025 3060 4185 5670

8 16 24 40 60

1620 2700 4080 5580 7560

9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1

12 11 10 9 8

.454 .507 .620 .731 .838

.162 .202 .302 .419 .551

45 60 100 160 245

4860 6060 9060 12570 16530

68 90 150 240 368

7290 9090 13590 18855 24795

90 120 200 320 490

9720 12120 18120 25140 33060

1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8

8 8 8 8 8

.963 1.088 1.213 1.338 1.463

.728 .929 1.155 1.405 1.680

355 500 680 800 1100

21840 27870 34650 42150 50400

533 750 1020 1200 1650

32760 41805 51975 63225 75600

710 1000 1360 1600 2200

43680 55740 69300 84300 100800

1-3/4 1-7/8 2 2-1//4 2-1/2

8 8 8 8 8

1.588 1.713 1.838 2.088 2.338

1.980 2.304 2.652 3.423 4.292

1500 2000 2200 3180 4400

59400 69120 79560 102690 128760

2250 3000 3300 4770 6600

89100 103680 119340 154035 193140

3000 4000 4400 6360 8800

118800 138240 159120 205380 257520

2-3/4 3 3-1/4 3-1/2 3-3/4

8 8 8 8 8

2.588 2.838 3.088 3.338 3.589

5.259 6.324 7.490 8.750 10.11

5920 7720 10000 12500 15400

157770 189720 224700 262500 303300

8880 11580 15000 18750 23150

236655 284580 337050 393750 454950

11840 15440 20000 25000 30900

315540 379440 449400 525000 606600

30,000 psi

Note: Torque values are based on well lubricated alloy steel bolting.

58

45,000 psi

60,000 psi

Installation Good Preparation Ensures Good Performance • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Handle with care Keep in package Protect from damage and the weather Stack; don’t hang Check flange surfaces for correct finish, blemishes, flatness, etc. Verify that proper stud material is being used Check condition of studs and nuts If washers are used they must be hardened Lubricate threads and bearing surface of nuts Don’t apply any compounds or pastes on the gasket Use the correct, new gasket Don’t secure the gasket to the flange with duct tape, if necessary use an aerosol adhesive such as 3M #77 Use a cross bolting pattern in incremental steps; then go bolt-to-bolt Apply sufficient load

Flexitallic’s Flange Assembly and Proper Bolting Procedures Seminar Let the Flexitallic Engineering and Technical Sales staffs train your personnel on proper flange assembly and bolting procedures using our Demonstration Unit. Understanding proper bolting practices and the gasket response to improper procedures is key to having leak free joints which allow for longer and safer uptime. The Demonstration Unit illustrates and allows for: • • • • • • • •

Hands-on craft skill development Elastic interaction of bolts (cross talk) Bolt scatter Effects of different assembly procedures Effects of different gasket types Gasket seating stress related to bolt stress and load Gasket response to overloading Inward radial buckling

59

Troubleshooting Joint Leakage When joint leakage occurs, a simple examination of the used gasket can determine the cause of failure. Firstly, always ensure that the spent gasket is correct to specification.

The Used Gasket . . . Telltale Signals for Spiral Wound Gaskets Gasket Features

Metal Windings

Observation

Possible Cause

Possible Remedy

Asymmetrical compression and/or flattening of the lands of the chevron

Smooth and/or Dissimilar surface finish

Apply recommended surface finish 125/250 Ra. Use inner and outer rings. Place gasket in a groove

Corrosion

Improper metal selection

Select metal compatible for the media

Severe discoloration, cracking

Improper metal selection Exceeding temperature limit

Select proper metal

Impingement or mechanical damage

Gasket wrongly sized Improper installation

Redesign gasket or use alternative gasket Improve installation and/or procedure

Extreme discoloration Corrosion

Filler material incompatible with media or process

Oxidation

Exceed temperature limit Incompatible with media

Uneven compression

Flange waviness Flange out of parallel Flange rotation Improper installation and/or procedures

Machine flanges to recommended flatness and parallelism. Reduce bolt stress and/or compensate for rotational effects. Improve installation procedures

Over-compression

Improper gasket selection Improper joint geometry

Use inner and/or outer rings Redesign joint geometry

Insufficient compression

Improper installation Improper gasket stiffness insufficient bolt load Improper joint geometry

Improve installation Use proper constructed gasket Improve joint geometry

Leak path scoring

Foreign matter

Proper clean up of flanges and/or gaskets

Transfer or imprint of flange surface finish

Improper surface finish

Assess finish and re-machine flanges to proper finish

Micro imperfections, dings, scratches, interrupted surfaces

Foreign matter, tool marks on flanges, hardware, i.e. set screws to other implements

Re-machine and/or repair flanges. Remove any obstruction or interrupted surfaces

Topical residue, smearing

Use of adhesives, grease compounds or tape as a means of gasket positioning or perceived performance enhancement

Do Not use any compounds, paste, grease or tape or any foreign substances. Note: Use of a light spray of adhesive is permissible for holding the gasket in place if needed

Buckling of the sealing element

Omitting the use of an inner ring. Smooth flange surface finish. Bolt up inconsistencies. Extreme temperatures. Overcompression

Use inner rings. Assess surface finish. Reduce bolt loads to acceptable stresses. Use alternative gasket, i.e. Flexpro

Excessive dishing, cupping indentations and yielding of outer ring

Excessive bolt load. Outer guide ring engaging bolts

Reduce bolt load to acceptable stresses. Concentric gasket installation

Filler

Select filler material compatible with media/ process and temperature

Thickness

Gasket face surfaces

Mechanical Damage

60

SECTION IV - Useful Technical Data Metallic Gasket Materials Material

Trade Name

Description

Temperature Range

Hardness Value (Brinell)

-58 to 1000°F (-50 to 540°C)

120 max 90 max for solid metal gaskets

Comments

Carbon Steel

-

Commercial Quality Sheet Forged or Rolled Steel Often referred to as Soft Iron or Armco

For General applications only.

316

-

An 18-12 chromium/nickel austenitic stainless steel, containing approx. 2% molybdenum content for high temperature strength.

1500°F max (815°C)

160 max

Excellent corrosion resistance Subject to stress corrosion cracking and intergranular corrosion in the presence of certain media Carbide precipitation may occur above 540°C

316L

-

Variation of 316, carbon content reduced to 0.03% maximum

1500°F max (815°C)

160 max

Reduced possibilities of stress Corrosion cracking and intergranular corrosion due to reduced carbon content

304

-

An 18-8 chromium/nickel austenitic stainless steel

1000°F max (540°C)

160 max

Excellent corrosion resistance Subject to stress corrosion cracking and intergranular corrosion at elevated temperatures

304L

-

Variation of 304. Carbon content reduced to 0.03% maximum

1000°F max (540°C)

160 max

Reduced possibilities of stress. Corrosion cracking and intergranular corrosion due to reduced carbon content

317L

-

An 18-13 chromium/nickel 3% molybdenum austenitic stainless steel

1500°F max (815°C)

160 max

Reduced possibilities of stress Corrosion cracking and intergranular corrosion due to reduced carbon content

321

-

An 18-10 chromium/nickel austenitic stainless steel with a titanium addition

1600°F max (870°C)

160 max

Is subject to stress corrosion Reduced possibilities of intergranular corrosion

347

-

An 18-10 chromium/nickel austenitic stainless steel with the addition of columbium (niobium)

1600°F max (870°C)

160 max

Similar properties as 321. High temperature resistance

410

-

A 13% chrom, 0.15% carbon martensitic stainless alloy

1560°F max (850°C)

210 max

Excellent high temperature strength/corrosion properties. Excellent resistance to oxidation, nitriding and carborization

Titanium grade 2

Titanium grade 2

High Purity Titanium material

2000°F max (1095°C)

Approx 215

Excellent high temperature Corrosion resistance Outstanding in oxidizing medias

Alloy 600

Inconel 600®

A 70% nickel, 15% chromium, 8% Iron alloy steel

2000°F max (1095°C)

200 max

Excellent high temperature strength/corrosion properties Excellent resistance to oxidation Nitriding and carborization

Alloy 625

Inconel 625®

A nickel/chromium alloy with substantial additions of molybdenum & columbium (niobium)

2000°F max (1095°C)

240 max

Outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide range of acid, neutral and alkaline environments

61

Metallic Gasket Materials

Material

Trade Name

Description

Temperature Range

Hardness Value (Brinell)

Comments

Alloy 800

Incoloy 800®

A 32% nickel, 20% chromium, 46% iron alloy steel

2000°F max (1095°C)

200 max

Excellent high temperature resistance

Alloy 825

Incoloy 825®

A nickel, chromium, iron, molybdenum and copper alloy steel

2000°F max (1095°C)

180 max

High resistance to hot acid conditions and outstanding resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

Alloy 200

Nickel 200

Commercially pure (99.6%) wrought nickel

1200°F max (650°C)

150 max

Highly resistant to various reducing chemicals and caustic alkalis.

Alloy 400

Monel® 400

A 67% nickel/30% copper alloy steel

1500°F max (820°C)

200 max

High resistance to hydrofluoric acid.

Alloy B2

Hastelloy® B2

A nickel/molybdenum alloy steel

2000°F max (1095°C)

200 max

Excellent chemical resistance to hydrochloric acid, sulfuric, acetic and phosphoric acids.

A nickel/chromium/molybdenum alloy steel

2000°F max (1095°C)

200 max

Excellent corrosion resistance to both oxidizing and reducing media.

An iron/chromium alloy steel

1400°F max (760°C)

160 max

Specifically developed for applications requiring resistance to sulfuric acid.

A nickel/chromium/iron alloy steel

2000°F max (1095°C)

-

Precipitation hardenable high resistance steel. See page 30.

Alloy C276 Hastelloy® C276

Alloy 20

Carpenter 20

Alloy X-750

Inconel® X-750

Aluminum

-

Commercially pure wrought aluminum

800°F max (425°C)

Approx 35

Excellent ductility and workability.

Brass

-

Commercial copper/zinc alloy

500°F max (260°C)

Approx 60

General corrosion resistance.

Copper

-

Commercially pure copper

600°F max (315°C)

Approx 80

General corrosion resistance.

Alloy 2205

AL 2205

A 6% nickel, 22% chromium, 3% molybdenum stainless steel

600°F max (315°C)

290 max

Other materials include tantalum, zirconium, platinum, gold, and bronze.

62

Austenitic/Ferritic duplex alloy with improved resistance to stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion. Higher strength than most stainless steel grades.

Useful Material Data Stainless Steel Materials - Worldwide Equivalents

USA

UK

DIN

FRANCE

ITALY

SPAIN

JAPAN

SWEDEN

AISI/SAE

BS

DIN / W.-Nr

AFNOR

UNI

UNE

JIS

SS

304

304 S 15

X5CrNi 18 9 / 1.4301

Z6CN 18.09

X5CrNi 18 10

X5CrNi 18 10

SUS 304

2332

304L

304 S 12

X2CrNi 18 9 / 1.4306

Z2CN 18.10

X2CrNi 18 11

X2CrNi 19 10

SUS 304L

2352 2333

309

309 S 24

X15CrNi Si 20 12 / 1.4828

Z15CNS 20.12

-

X15CrNiSi20 12

SUH 309

-

310

-

X15CrNi Si 25 20 / 1.4841

Z12CNS 25.20

X16CrNiSi25 20

X15CrNiSi 25 20

SUH 310

-

316

316 S 16

X5CrNiMo 18 10 / 1.4401

Z6CND 17.11

X5CrNiMo 17 12

X5CrNiM 17 12

SUS 316

2347

316L

316 S 11 316 S 12

X2CrNiMo 18 10 / 1.4404

Z2CND 18.13

X2CrNiMo 17 12

X2CrNiMo 17 12

SUS 316L

2348

316Ti

320 S 31 320 S 17

X10CrNiMoTi 18 10 / 1.4571

Z6CNDT 17.12

X6CrNiMoTi1712 X6CrNiMoTi1712

-

2350

321

321 S 12

X10CrNiTi 18 19 / 1.4541

Z6CNT 18.10

X6CrTi 18 11

X7CrNiTi 18 11

SUS 321

2337

347

347 S 51

X10CrNiNb 18 9 / 1.4550

Z6CNNb 18.10

X6CrNiNb 18 11

X7CrNiNb 18 11

SUS 347

2338

410

410 S 21

X10Cr13 / 1.4006

Z12 C13

X12 Cr13

X12 Cr13

SUS 410

2302

63

Bolting Data Yield Strength (ksi) vs Temperature TEMPERATURE °F/°C SPEC

GRADE 70/20

400/205

600/315

B6

85

76

72

B7

75-105

65-92

60-85

53-74

B8-CL1*

30

21

18

17

B16

85-105

79-98

75-93

67-83

ASTM A320

L7, L7A

105

92

84

73

ASTM A453

660

85

82

81

80

BS 4882

Nimonic B80A

90

ASTM B446

Inconel 625

60

ASTM B637

Inconel 718

150

ASTM A193

800/425

1000/540

1200/650

1400/760

1500/815

73

50

107

Elastic Modulus (X 106 psi) vs Temperature SPEC

GRADE

TEMPERATURE °F/°C -200/-130

70/20

400/205

600/315

800/425

B6

30.7

29.2

27.3

26.1

24.7

B7

31.0

29.7

27.9

26.9

25.5

B8-CL1*

29.7

28.3

26.5

25.3

24.1

B16

31.0

29.7

27.9

26.9

25.5

ASTM A320

L7

31.0

29.7

27.9

26.9

25.5

ASTM A453

660

29.7

28.3

26.5

25.3

24.1

BS 4882

Nimonic B80A

ASTM B446

Inconel 625

30.2

ASTM

Inconel

29.0

B637

718

ASTM A193

31.2

1000/540

1200/650

1400/760

1500/815

>22.7

22.6

22.3

* When using stainless steel bolting, ensure that yield strength of bolts is high enough to ensure that sufficient preload is available to properly compress the gasket, e.g. consider use of ASTM A193 B8 Class 2 rather than Class 1.

64

Bolting Data Design Stress Values (ksi) vs Temperature TEMPERATURE °F/°C SPEC

GRADE 650/345

700/370 750/400

800/425

850/455

900/480 950/510

1000/540

1050/565 1100/595

B6

21.2

21.2

21.2

19.6

15.6

12.0

B7 *

25.0

25.0

23.6

21.0

17.0

12.5

8.5

4.5

B7M *

20.0

20.0

20.0

18.5

16.2

12.5

8.5

4.5

B8-CL1**

11.2

11.0

10.8

10.5

10.3

10.1

9.9

9.7

9.5

B16

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

23.5

20.5

16.0

11.0

6.3

ASTM A320

L7

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

16.2

12.5

8.5

4.5

ASTM A453

660

20.2

20.1

20.0

19.9

19.9

19.9

19.8

19.8

ASTM A193

2.8

* For Bolt Diameters ≤ 2-1/2” Please note that the above values are for reference purposes only. Values are extracted from ASME or BS 5500.

Recommended Working Temperatures of Bolt Materials

Stress Retention Properties of Bolt Materials

TEMPERATURE °F/°C MATERIAL MAX.

-20/-30

570/300

B7

-20/-30/

750/400

L7

-150/-100

750/400

B6

-20/-30

950/510

B8

-325/-200

1075/580

B16

-20/-30

975/525

100 Residual Stress (% of initial stress)

Carbon Steel

MIN.

B8 B17/660

75

B8M 50

B80A

25 B7 Carbon Steel

B16

0

B17/660

-20/-30

1200/650

B80A

-420/-250

1400/760

Inconel 625

-420/-250

1200/650

Inconel 718

-420/-250

1400/760

0

212

392

572

752

932

1112 1292 1472

Temperature °F

Stress relaxation behavior of various bolting materials showing percentage of initial stress retained at temperature

** When using stainless steel bolting, ensure that yield strength of bolts is high enough to ensure that sufficient preload is available to properly compress the gasket, e.g. consider use of ASTM A193 B8 Class 2 rather than Class 1.

65

Bolting Data Bolting Data for ASME B16.5 & BS 1560 Flanges CLASS 150

CLASS 300

CLASS 600

FLANGE DIA.

NO. OF BOLTS

BOLT DIA.

B.C. DIA.

FLANGE DIA.

NO. OF BOLTS

BOLT DIA.

B.C. DIA.

FLANGE DIA.

NO. OF BOLTS

BOLT DIA.

B.C. DIA.

FLANGE DIA.

NO. OF BOLTS

BOLT DIA.

B.C. DIA.

1/4 1/2 3/4 1

3-3/8 3-1/2 3-7/8 4-1/4

4 4 4 4

1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2

2-1/4 2-3/8 2-3/4 3-1/8

3-3/8 3-3/4 4-5/8 4-7/8

4 4 4 4

1/2 1/2 5/8 5/8

2-1/4 2-5/8 3-1/4 3-1/2

3-3/8 3-3/4 4-5/8 4-7/8

4 4 4 4

1/2 1/2 5/8 5/8

2-1/4 2-5/8 3-1/4 3-1/2

3-3/8 3-3/4 4-5/8 4-7/8

4 4 4 4

1/2 1/2 5/8 5/8

2-1/4 2-5/8 3-1/4 3-1/2

1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2

4-5/8 5 6 7

4 4 4 4

1/2 1/2 5/8 5/8

3-1/2 3-7/8 4-3/4 5-1/2

5-1/4 6-1/8 6-1/2 7-1/2

4 4 8 8

5/8 3/4 5/8 3/4

3-7/8 4-1/2 5 5-7/8

5-1/4 6-1/8 6-1/2 7-1/2

4 4 8 8

5/8 3/4 5/8 3/4

3-7/8 4-1/2 5 5-7/8

5-1/4 6-1/8 6-1/2 7-1/2

4 4 8 8

5/8 3/4 5/8 3/4

3-7/8 4-1/2 5 5-7/8

3 3-1/2 4 5

7-1/2 8-1/2 9 10

4 8 8 8

5/8 5/8 5/8 3/4

6 7 7-1/2 8-1/2

8-1/4 9 10 11

8 8 8 8

3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4

6-5/8 7-1/4 7-7/8 9-1/4

8-1/4 9 10 11

8 8 8 8

3/4 7/8 7/8 7/8

6-5/8 7-1/4 7-7/8 9-1/4

8-1/4 9 10-3/4 13

8 8 8 8

3/4 7/8 7/8 1

6-5/8 7-1/4 8-1/2 10-1/2

6 8 10 12

11 13-1/2 16 19

8 8 12 12

3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8

9-1/2 11-3/4 14-1/4 17

12-1/2 15 17-1/2 20-1/2

12 12 16 16

3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8

10-5/8 13 15-1/4 17-3/4

12-1/2 15 17-1/2 20-1/2

12 12 16 16

7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4

10-5/8 13 15-1/4 17-3/4

14 16-1/2 20 22

12 12 16 20

1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/4

11-1/2 13-3/4 17 19-1/4

14 16 18 20 24

21 23-1/2 25 27-1/2 32

12 16 16 20 20

1 1 1-1/8 1-1/8 1-1/4

18-3/4 21-1/4 22-3/4 25 29-1/2

23 25-1/2 28 30-1/2 36

20 20 24 24 24

1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/2

20-1/4 22-1/2 24-3/4 27 32

23 25-1/2 28 30-1/2 36

20 20 24 24 24

1-1/4 1-3/8 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-3/4

20-1/4 22-1/2 24-3/4 27 32

23-3/4 27 29-1/4 32 37

20 20 20 24 24

1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-7/8

20-3/4 23-3/4 25-3/4 28-1/2 33

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE

FLANGE DIA.

NO. OF BOLTS

BOLT DIA.

B.C. DIA.

FLANGE DIA.

NO. OF BOLTS

BOLT DIA.

B.C. DIA.

FLANGE DIA.

NO. OF BOLTS

BOLT DIA.

B.C. DIA.

1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4

4-3/4 5-1/8 5-7/8 6-1/4

4 4 4 4

3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8

3-1/4 3-1/2 4 4-3/8

4-3/4 5-1/8 5-7/8 6-1/4

4 4 4 4

3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8

3-1/4 3-1/2 4 4-3/8

5-1/4 5-1/2 6-1/4 7-1/4

4 4 4 4

3/4 3/4 7/8 1

3-1/2 3-3/4 4-1/4 5-1/8

1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3

7 8-1/2 9-5/8 9-1/2

4 8 8 8

1 7/8 1 7/8

4-7/8 6-1/2 7-1/2 7-1/2

7 8-1/2 9-5/8 10-1/2

4 8 8 8

1 7/8 1 1-1/8

4-7/8 6-1/2 7-1/2 8

8 9-1/4 10-1/2 12

4 8 8 8

1-1/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4

5-3/4 6-3/4 7-3/4 9

4 5 6 8

11-1/2 13-3/4 15 18-1/2

8 8 12 12

1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/8 1-3/8

9-1/4 11 12-1/2 15-1/2

12-1/4 14-3/4 15-1/2 19

8 8 12 12

1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/8 1-5/8

9-1/2 11-1/2 12-1/2 15-1/2

14 16-1/2 19 21-3/4

8 8 8 12

1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2

10-3/4 12-3/4 14-1/2 17-1/4

10 12 14 16

21-1/2 24 25-1/4 27-3/4

16 20 20 20

1-3/8 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8

18-1/2 21 22 24-1/4

23 26-1/2 29-1/2 32-1/2

12 16 16 16

1-7/8 2 2-1/4 2-1/2

19 22-1/2 25 27-3/4

26-1/2 30 -

12 12 -

2-1/2 2-3/4 -

21-1/4 24-3/8 -

18 20 24

31 33-3/4 41

20 20 20

1-7/8 2 2-1/2

27 29-1/2 35-1/2

36 38-3/4 46

16 16 16

2-3/4 3 3-1/2

30-1/2 32-3/4 39

-

-

-

-

CLASS 900

Dimensions in inches

66

CLASS 400

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE

CLASS 1500

CLASS 2500

Flange Facing Dimensions Facing Dimensions for ASME B16.5 & BS 1560 Flanges Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500

Outside Diameter See Note (3)

Raised Face, Lapped, Large Male, & Large Tongues See Note (5)

Small Male See Notes (4) & (5)

R

1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2

Outside Diameter See Note (3)

Height

Raised Face Class 150 & 300

Raised Face Large & Small Male & Tongue Class 400, 600, 900 1500 & 2500

See Note (1)

See Note (2)

15/16 1-1/4 1-7/16 1-13/16 2-1/16

1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16

1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16

3-5/16 3-13/16 4-11/16 5-3/16 5-3/4

2-13/16 3-5/16 4-3/16 4-11/16 5-1/8

1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16

1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16

5-7/16 6-7/16 8-7/16 10-9/16 12-9/16

6-7/8 8-1/16 10-1/16 12-1/16 14-5/16

6-1/4 7-7/16 9-5/16 11-3/16 13-7/16

1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16

1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16

13-13/16 15-13/16 17-13/16 19-13/16 23-13/16

15-9/16 17-11/16 20-3/16 22-1/16 26-5/16

14-11/16 16-11/16 19-3/16 20-15/16 25-3/16

1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16 1/16

1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4

3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16

Small Tongue See Note (5)

I.D. of Large & Small Tongue See Notes (3) & (5)

Large Female & Large Groove See Note (5)

Small Female See Note (4) See Note (5)

Small Groove See Note (5)

S

T

U

W

X

Y

1-3/8 1-11/16 2 2-1/2 2-7/8

23/32 15/16 1-3/16 1-1/2 1-3/4

1-3/8 1-11/16 1-7/8 2-1/4 2-1/2

1 1-5/16 1-1/2 1-7/8 2-1/8

1-7/16 1-3/4 2-1/16 2-9/16 2-15/16

25/32 1 1-1/4 1-9/16 1-13/16

1-7/16 1-3/4 1-15/16 2-5/16 2-9/16

2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4

3-5/8 4-1/8 5 5-1/2 6-3/16

2-1/4 2-11/16 3-5/16 3-13/16 4-5/16

3-1/4 3-3/4 4-5/8 5-1/8 5-11/16

2-7/8 3-3/8 4-1/4 4-3/4 5-3/16

3-11/16 4-3/16 5-1/16 5-9/16 6-1/4

2-5/16 2-3/4 3-3/8 3-7/8 4-3/8

5 6 8 10 12

7-5/16 8-1/2 10-5/8 12-3/4 15

5-3/8 6-3/8 8-3/8 10-1/2 12-1/2

6-13/16 8 10 12 14-1/4

6-5/16 7-1/2 9-3/8 11-1/4 13-1/2

7-3/8 8-9/16 10-11/16 12-13/16 15-1/16

14 16 18 20 24

16-1/4 18-1/2 21 23 27-1/4

13-3/4 15-3/4 17-3/4 19-3/4 23-3/4

15-1/2 17-5/8 20-1/8 22 26-1/4

14-3/4 16-3/4 19-1/4 21 25-1/4

16-5/16 18-9/16 21-1/16 23-1/16 27-5/16

Nominal Pipe Size

I.D. of Large & Small Groove See Note (3) See Note (5)

Depth of Groove or Female

Dimensions in inches Notes: (1) Regular facing for Class 150 and 300 steel flanged fittings and companion flange standards is a 1/16” raised face included in the minimum flange thickness dimensions. A 1/16” raised face may be supplied also on the Class 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 flange standards, but it must be added to the minimum flange thickness. (2) Regular facing for Class 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 flange thickness dimensions. (3) Tolerance of plus or minus 0.016”, 1/64” is allowed on the inside and outside diameters of all facings. (4) For small male and female joints care should be taken in the use of these dimensions to insure that pipe used is thick enough to permit sufficient bearing surface to prevent the crushing of the gasket. The dimensions apply particularly on lines where the joint is made on the end of the pipe. Screwed companion flanges for small male and female joints are furnished with plain face and are threaded with American Standard Locknut Thread. (5) Gaskets for male-female and tongue-groove joints shall cover the bottom of the recess with minimum clearances taking into account the tolerances prescribed in Note 3.

67

Ordering FLEXITALLIC Gaskets for Special Flange Designs In order for FLEXITALLIC to design a gasket suitable for the application, it is imperative that complete details be submitted for review. The information we require is the following: 1. Type of flange facing 2. Dimensions of the gasket seating surfaces 3. Number, size and material of bolts 4. Bolt circle diameter 5. Operating pressure & temperature (process media if known) 6. Hydrostatic test pressure 7. Initial bolt pre-stress 8. Customer preference on gasket materials FLEXITALLIC supplies engineering data sheets at no cost on which this information may be submitted. As a gasket manufacturer, it is impossible for us to review every flange design to make certain that flange rotation and flange stresses are within allowable limits defined in the Code. We proceed on the assumption the design engineer has followed the design criteria established by the ASME Boiler Code and that the flanges are sufficiently rigid under the most severe condition to preclude the possibility the gasket could become unloaded either during operating conditions or hydrostatic test conditions. We are aware that most flange designers do not take into consideration flange rotation at test conditions prior to finalizing their design. We also, of a practical necessity, must assume the bolt material being used is adequate for all conditions including operating pressure at operating temperature and hydrostatic test pressure at ambient temperature. The use of the optimum material for bolts is a very complex subject and we suggest reviewing currently available technical literature for guidance in the proper selection of bolting material for piping and pressure vessel applications. GASKET ENGINEERING DATA Company ______________________________________________ Address _______________________________________________ SERVICE CONDITIONS Operating Pressure _______psi Operating Temp _______°F Substance to be sealed _______ Unusual condition _______

CUSTOMER PREFERENCE Gasket Material _______ Gasket Filler _______ Ring Metal _______ Gasket Style _______

Date _______________ Order/Inquiry No. _______________________ FLANGE DESCRIPTION Figure _______ Welding Neck _______ Lap Joint _______ Slip On _______ Blind ______

T

T C B A

FLANGE DIMENSIONS A _______” T _______ B _______” No. of Bolts _______ C _______” Size of Bolts _______ D _______” Bolt Material _______

Material _______ Threaded _______ Sketch (Back) _______ Print Attached _______ Surface Finish _______rms

T C B A

C B A

D

D

Raised Face or Van Stone

Male and Female

T C A

68

T

T C B

C B A

A

D

Smooth Face

Tongue and Groove

Male & Female with Spigot

D

Groove to Flat Face

Ordering FLEXITALLIC Gaskets for Special Flange Designs Overall Dimensional Limits In general, the only limits on the dimensions of heat exchanger gaskets are the limits of sizes of material available. Note: In addition to the above information, drawings of your application are always helpful for proper dimensioning of gaskets. Dimensions • Outside Diameter • Inside Diameter • Shape • Style Number • Thickness • Material (metal or metal and filler) • Rib width • Distance from centerline of gasket to centerline of ribs • Radii • Specify number, placement, bolt circle radius and size of bolt holes

8

8 Qty. Holes

7

6 3 6

1

4

2 4

6

6 Legend: 1. 2. 3. 4.

O.D. gasket I.D. gasket Width of rib Radius on rib

5. 6. 7. 8.

Bolt circle radius C of gasket to C of rib Radius around bolt Location of bolt holes

69

Metric Unit Conversions To Convert From:

To SI Units:

To Convert From:

Multiply By:

To SI Units:

Length mil in in ft

0.0254 25.4 2.54 0.3048

lbf kgf

cm2 m2

6.4516 0.0929

g kg g kg

28.3495 0.0283 453.5924 0.4536

Pa kPa bar MPa Pa

6894.757 6.8947 0.069 0.0069 1.000

Torque in lb ft lb

Nm Nm

3.7854 3

oz/in3 g/cm3 lb/ft3

0.0038

g/cm3 kg/m3 kg/m3

0.113 1.3558

Adhesion

1.73 1000 16.0185

lb/in

KN/m

Temperature Conversion Conversion Formulas: C = 5 (F-32), F = 9 (C)+32 9 5 Fahrenheit to Centigrade -350 to 6

70

Multiply By:

Density

l m

psi psi psi psi N/m2

Weight

Volume US gal

4.4482 9.8066

To SI Units:

Pressure

N N

oz oz lb lb

Area

US gal

To Convert From:

Force

mm mm cm m

in2 ft2

Multiply By:

7 to 49

50 to 92

93 to 440

450 to 870

880 to 2000

F

C

F

C

F

C

F

C

F

C

F

C

-350 -340 -330 -320 -310 -300 -290 -280 -273 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-212 -207 -201 -196 -190 -184 -179 -173 -169 -168 -162 -157 -151 -146 -140 -134 -129 -123 -118 -112 -107 -101 -96 -90 -84 -79 -73 -68 -62 -57 -51 -46 -40 -34 -29 -23 -17.8 -17.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

-13.9 -13.3 -12.8 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 -9.4 -8.9 -8.3 -7.8 -7.2 -6.7 -6.1 -5.6 -5.0 -4.4 -3.9 -3.3 -2.8 -2.2 -1.7 -1.1 -0.6 0.0 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92

10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9 24.4 25.0 25.5 26.1 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7 32.2 32.8 33.3

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440

33.9 34.4 35.0 35.6 36.1 36.7 37.2 37.8 43 49 54 60 66 71 77 82 88 93 99 100 104 110 116 121 127 132 138 143 149 154 160 166 171 177 182 188 193 199 204 210 215 221 227

450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870

232 238 243 249 254 260 266 271 277 282 288 293 299 304 310 316 321 327 332 338 343 349 354 360 366 371 377 382 388 393 399 404 410 416 421 427 432 438 443 449 454 460 466

880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000

471 477 482 488 493 499 504 510 516 521 527 532 538 549 560 571 582 593 604 616 627 638 649 660 671 682 693 704 732 760 788 816 843 871 899 927 954 982 1010 1038 1066 1093

0.1751

71

The content of this Dimensional and Order Guide relates to Flexitallic’s products as supplied. The information contained herein is given in good faith, but no liability will be accepted in relation to same. The revision of products, pursuant to Flexitallic’s policy of continuous development, as well as the acquisition of further information, may necessitate revisions to parts or all of this document. Flexitallic’s Technical Sales Department will be pleased to update customers, on request. As the company’s products are used for a multiplicity of purposes, and as Flexitallic has no control over the method of their application or use, Flexitallic must exclude all conditions or warranties, express or implied, as to their products and/or their fitness for any particular purpose. Any technical cooperation between the Company and its customers is given for the customer’s assistance only, and without liability on the part of Flexitallic. Flexitallic L.P. guarantees that any product of its manufacture, which, upon examination by a Flexitallic representative, is found to be defective in either workmanship or material whereby it is suitable under proper usage and service for the purpose for which is was designed, will be replaced or repaired free of charge including transportation charges but not cost of installation or, at our option, the purchase price will be refunded. The products are not guaranteed as to performance under any specific service nor for any specific period of time. The sale of our products under any other warranty or guarantee express or implied is not authorized by the company. WARNING: Properties/applications shown throughout this brochure are typical. Your specific application should not be undertaken without independent study and evaluation for suitability. For specific application recommendations consult Flexitallic. Failure to select the proper sealing products could result in property damage and/or serious personal injury. Performance data published in this brochure has been developed from field testing, customer field reports and/or in-house testing. While the utmost care has been used in compiling this brochure, we assume no responsibility for errors. Specifications subject to change without notice. This edition cancels all previous issues. Subject to change without notice. Flexitallic is a registered trademark for gaskets, seals and other products of Flexitallic.

72

IT’S SAFE

Gasket CRITERIA. Flexitallic SAFE is an added level of seal integrity resulting from our commitment to innovation in materials, co-engineered solutions and onsite education to improve installation.

USA / FLEXITALLIC L.P.

UNITED KINGDOM / FLEXITALLIC LTD.

6915 Highway 225 Deer Park, TX 77536 USA phone: +1-281-604-2400 fax: +1-281-604-2415

Scandinavia Mill Hunsworth Lane Cleckheaton BD19 4LN United Kingdom phone: + 44-1274-851273 fax: +44-1274-300303

USA / CUSTOM RUBBER PRODUCTS 2625 Bennington Houston, TX 77093 USA phone: +1-713-691-2211 fax: +1-713-691-3005

CANADA / FLEXITALLIC 4340 – 78 Avenue Edmonton, Alberta, T6B 3J5 Canada phone: +1-780-466-5050 fax: +1-780-465-1177

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES / FLEXITALLIC LLC Amenity Centre, Tower Number 2, 10th Floor, Office 4 Al Hamra Industrial Area, Ras Al Khaimah phone: +971 (0)7 243 4305

SAUDI ARABIA / FLEXITALLIC MIDDLE EAST LLC Al-Aujam Industrial City 6790-Al Badia, Unit No. 1 Al Qatif 32656-2462 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia phone: 0096-13-8089635

CHINA / FLEXITALLIC SEALING TECHNOLGY CO., LTD Building 3 South Wujiang Export Processing Zone 688 Pangjin Road Wujiang, Jiangsu 215200 P.R. China phone: +86-512-6303-2839

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